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Illustrated with Letters and Documents from original sources, 
collected Iry the Author, and hitherto inedited. 


i8 9 5. 



All rights reserved. 


I feel in duty bound to offer my best thanks to Mrs. Baxter, 
who is well known in the world of letters as Leader Scott, 
for her able supervision of this work, also to the distinguished 
printers and publishers Barbera of Florence, and to those 
employed by them, for the admirable manner in which they 
have executed the difficult task of so correctly printing an 
English book in Italy. 

J. T. L. 



F NE day, more than forty years ago, on examining the plan 
of a little farm just bought by me, and situated in the parish of 
Saint Martin at Maiano near Florence, I found that an adjoin- 
ing farm belonged, or had belonged, to a Duca di Berlicke. 
The title puzzled me. I thought at first it was an Italian cor- 
ruption of Duke of Berwick, who possessed estates in many 
countries ; but on careful examination of the documents relat- 
ing to the former possessors of the farm, it appeared clearly that 
Berlicke meant Warwick, and that the farm had belonged to a 
Dudley who was styled Earl of Warwick, and Duke of Northum- 
berland ; and who was a son of Robert Dudley, created Duke 
of Northumberland in 1620 by the Emperor Ferdinand II. 

This Emperor was a brother of Maria Maddalena, Grand- 
Duchess of Tuscany, married in 1608 to Cosimo II, who died 
in 1621, aged about 31 years. Maria Maddalena was joint Re- 
gent of Tuscany during the minority of her son Ferdinand II, 
(who died in 1670), * an office she held conjointly with Christina 
of Lorraine, widow of Ferdinand 1st. 

1 Maria Maddalena d' Austria, Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, died in 1631; 
Christina of Lorraine, Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, died in 1636. 



Robert Dudley was Grand Chamberlain to Maria Madda- 
lena, as he was afterwards to Christina of Lorraine, and to Vit- 
toria della Rovere, Princess of Urbino and Grand-Duchess of 
Tuscany, having thus been Grand Chamberlain to three suc- 
cessive Grand-Duchesses of Tuscany. 

The corruption of a name, from Warwick to BerlicJse, may 
appear incredible, but in the course of my enquiries concerning 
the Dudley family, I have found many such strange Italian cor- 
ruptions of English names. 

A neighbouring farm, now my property, belonged to the same 
Dudleys, and their descendants, the Paleotti of Bologna. 

In the farm house I found, among other things, a little carved 
wood sideboard or buffet, of the 17th century, in a very dilapi- 
dated condition, past repair. An exact copy of it was made 
for me, and is now in the entrance hall of my Villa at Maiano. 
The little farm had evidently been made to serve also as plea- 
saunce or wilderness. Green alleys had been traced, and oaks, 
ilex and pine-trees planted, to the great detriment of the crops, 
the olive trees and the vines, and probably to the despair of 
the contadino (the peasant farmer). Many of the trees had 
been cut down before it became my property, and the little 
farm had been partly restored to its original agricultural state. 
But enough still remains to show that it had once been in the 
hands of a landscape gardener. 

Continuing my researches relating to the Dudleys, in various 
places, more especially in the public libraries of Florence, in 
the offices for registering marriages, deaths and births, in the 
Archives of State, at the Specola or Museum of Natural History, 
and in buying and consulting all the old books I could find 
on the subject, I collected, in the course of many years, a large 
mass of documents and letters concerning the Dudley family, 
which I examined and read attentively and scrupulously, copying 


exactly what I thought interesting in them. The result of this 
study I now lay before the reader. 

The principal documentary evidence that I have gleaned has 
been from the following sources : 

1st A large collection of MSS. notes and copies of letters 
relating to Robert Earl of Leicester, given to me by the late 
lamented Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ; 

2nd Family Documents, many of them original, some written 
by the hand of Robert Dudley himself; 

3rd Pedigrees of the Dudley and Southwell families ; 

4th The original MS. by Dudley of his Direttorio Marit- 
timo, preceded by a short autobiography, as far as concerned 
his naval career ; 

5th Copies of Letters in the Medicean Archives, and the Ar- 
chives of State in Florence. The originals of many of these are 
in the writing of Robert Dudley and his sons, some from the 
Grand-Dukes Cosimo III, and Ferdinand II. The greater part 
however are official letters referring to Dudley and his affairs, 
which passed between the Signori Cioli and Picchena, secretaries 
of state for Tuscany ; and the foreign ministers of the Tuscan 
Court, in London, who were successively the Signori Lotti and 
Salvetti. These letters, many of which I have reproduced in the 
original tongue in the Appendix, proved a mine of information, 
giving facts and dates, where before all certainty was wanting, 
and adding many a graphic touch of life to the events so long past. 
Notices of Robert Dudley are to be found in many publications, 
but in all of those seen by me there are inaccuracies and omissions. 
I will give here a list of the books referring to him : 

Eegum Pariumque Magnce Britannia Historia genealo- 
gica, etc. Studio ac opera JACOBI WILHEMI IMHOFF, Norimberga, 
Sumptibus Johannis Andrese Endteri Filiorum. Ann. MDCXC. 


The Athena by ANTHONY WOOD, who wrote from infor- 
mation received from Don Carlo, son of Robert Dudley. 

DUGDALE, Warwickshire and Baronage. 

COLLINS, Peerage, 1727. 

Biographia Britannica. 

Dr. SAMUEL JEBB, Life of Eobert, Earl of Leicester. 

CRAIK, Romance of the Peerage, 1849. 

NICOLAS, Report on the Barony of Lisle. 

Rev. Dr. VAUGHAN THOMAS, Vicar of Stoneleigh, Warwick- 
shire, The Italian Biography of Sir Robert Dudley; privately 
printed for presentation, 1849. 

MICHAUD, Biographie Universelle. Paris, 1855. 

Life of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. 

EDMUND LODGE, Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great 
Britain, a grand illustrated book. 

NICHOLS, Pedigree of the Dudleys. 

The Newgate Calender : 18th century. 

GALLUZZI, Storia del Granducato di Toscana. 

Le Noz0e degli Dei, Court revels in Florence. 

LiTTA, Famiglie lllustri. 


RICHA, Delle Chiese. 

Dottore MARCO CORNACCHINI'S Medical treatise on the 
Warwick powder. 

GEORGE ALLARD, Amye JRobsart. 

Rossi, Osservatore Florentine. 

GIUSEPPE PIOMBANTI, Guida delta citta di Livorno, 1873. 

SUSAN and JOANNA HORNER, Walks in Florence. 

Now most of these, as I have remarked, contain inaccuracies. 
I will here mention a few. Imhoff in his Regum etc. Britannia 
gives the " schema Familise Suttonico Dudlejanae " as follows : 


rt Kobertus Dudley B. de Denbigh. C. Leicestrise, Eq. Per. 
>fc 4 Sept. 1588 ux. 1. Anna Job. Kobsart f : 2, Duglassia Howard, 
Wilhelmi B. D'Effingham f. Job. B. Sheffield vid : 3. Lsetitia 
Francisci Knolles f. Walter! d'Evereux C. Essex vid, 1576." 

And of his son by his second wife thus : " Robertus Dudley 
n. 1574. Dux a Cesar e Ferdinando II. a. 1620 creatus, >I< Flo- 
rentine a. 1650. 1. N. Cavendish Thomse soror : 2. Alicia, Ducissa 
Dudley, Thomse Leigh de Storielay f. >J< 22 Jann. 1670. 3. Eli- 
zabetha Roberti Southwell f." 

Now Dudley died in 1649 not 1650, and his first wife was Fran- 
ces Vavassour not Cavendish. As to his children and their descen- 
dants, Imhoff makes many mis-statements. He gives Dudley five 
daughters in England, where he had but four; and his list of Flo- 
rentine children is very mixed indeed, and faulty. Of the son 
Carlo he says: n Carolus Dudley dictus Dux Northumbrise >{< Flo- 
rentise circa n. 1687, married Maria Magdalena Gouffier," and 
by her had issue ff Robertus Dux Northumbrise dictus Gufferius 
Dudley Florentiae Antonius Dudley Canonicus ad S. Petri Romae 
Catharina nupta Marchioni Paliotti in Bononia Carola. 1 ' 

Returning to Robert Dudley, he says : fr De Roberto Dudleo, 
quern parens Leicestrise Comes unicum tantae familise ac fortu- 
narum haeredem in gratiam Laetitise Knolliae illegitimam decla- 
rasse dictus est, refert Dugdalius." There follows a short narra- 
tive of his life and death, neither complete nor accurate. 

In many notices of Robert Dudley it is stated that he was 
buried in the Church of St. Pancras in Florence. This is cer- 
tainly a mistake. There may have been some funeral service in 
that Church soon after his death, but he was not buried there. 
He died on the 6th of September 1649, at the Villa Rinieri now 
Corsini, near Quarto, about four miles or less from Florence. 
His body was conveyed to the neighbouring monastery of Bol- 
drone, where his daughter Teresa had passed several years for 


education, in conserva as her father expressed it in a letter, till 
her marriage in 1645 with Fidvio della Corgna, Duca di Castiylion 
del Lago. In that monastery the corpse of Dudley still remained 
in 1673, twenty four years after his death, according to a letter 
of that date from his eldest surviving son Carlo, the second Duke 
of Northumberland. 

The author of the " Italian Biography of Sir Kobert Dud- 
ley " observes : " Suffice it to say, that the Duke of Northum- 
berland was entitled not only to an honourable grave, but an 
ample record of all the important services he had rendered to 
the Grand-Duke of Tuscany. His celebrity as a philosopher 
and statesman, civil and military engineer, naval architect, 
hydrographer and geographer, mathematician and physician, 
demanded of the gratitude of the Tuscans and the admiration 
of Italy, the honour of a public funeral as well as the memorial 
of a public monument. But if Etruria had chosen to forget 
its debt of gratitude, it must be remembered that the deceased 
left five surviving sons ; and that Carlo il Duca di Nortumbria, 
and Enrico il Conte di Warwick, could not have failed to bestow 
sepulchral honours suitable to so eminent a man and so affection- 
ate a father. For it appears by an entry made in the Arrolo 
or roll, in the Registration office at Florence, that they entered 
into possession of their father's property at Florence on Septem- 
ber 2nd 1652 ; that their sisters had formed honourable alliances 
with the nobility of the land ; and that their brothers, Ambrose, 
Anthony, Ferdinand and Enrico, were alive to remind them all 
of their duty to their father, 1 if the two who were successors 
to his property in Florence had omitted to do so. We are com- 
pelled by this residence of his children upon the scene of their 

1 Here the author is wrong. All the brothers, except Enrico the young- 
est, died before their father. Carlo the heir was always at variance with 
him, and would not have been likely to do much for his memory. 


father's services, and some living under the very eye and obser- 
vation of the Tuscan Prince, to acknowledge their obligation to 
pay some last tribute, and that of an enduring nature, to the 
memory of such a father. As children they must have felt 
obliged, by the recollection of his Florentine reputation, his de- 
votion to the fame and interest of Tuscany, and specially by 
their natural love and affection to rescue from oblivion the 
existence of such a man, and an exile in the Grand-Duke's 
dominions. Summing up these various considerations, it may be 
concluded, though without such auxiliary evidences as would 
be necessary to prove it, that some area di marmo was at some 
unknown point of time erected in St. Pancras, either by the 
country's gratitude, or domestic reverence, worthy of the splen- 
dour of his abilities, and the greatness of his achievements; 
and worthy too of that spirit, which had been so often attested 
as a statesman by the boldness and wisdom of his counsels ; 
as an author by the extent, variety and greatness of his know- 
ledge ; as a master of the national works of Tuscany by the 
greatness of his undertakings, by the costruzioni et miglioramenti 
which he executed for the improvement of commerce and agri- 

" The foregoing considerations, when combined, direct the 
memorialist to the belief, that this distinguished man was not 
left without a monument in the Church of St. Pancras. But the 
discovery, made by the writer's able and accomplished friend 
the Reverend William Falconer, Rector of Bushey, 1 of a frag- 
mentary stone in what was once the cloister of the Church, and 
representing what was intended for a Ducal coronet surmounting 
the never failing accompaniment of the Dudleys, alive or dead, 
on tomb or tower, fabric or fitting up, has greater weight and 

Also my own esteemed and lamented friend. 


value in the writer's estimate of it as visible and tangible evi- 
dence, to prove the existence of some former area di marmo 
in honour of the Florentine, or rather Imperial Duke, than all 
the sayings and unsayings, all the gratis dicta and hearsay state- 
ments of all the Duke's biographers put together." 

Notwithstanding this reasoning, these declarations, and this 
impassioned pleading of the author of the Italian Biography 
of Robert Dudley, it is almost an absolute certainty, that no 
private or public monument was ever erected to Robert Dudley, 
either in the now desecrated Church of St. Pancras in Florence, 
or at Boldrone, which is now private property, or anywhere 
else. It must be borne in mind that Carlo, his eldest son, was 
in his youth riotous, extravagant and unruly, at variance with 
his father, whom he once encountered pistol in hand, near 
Quarto. One evening he was violent and made a disturbance at 
a great reception in Palazzo Strozzi. He was for some time in 
disgrace at Court and confined by the Grand-Duke's order in 
the Fortezza at Florence. 

The other children, probably, had not the means to have a 
monument erected. Their father left but little real property 
and most probably very little money. As for public gratitude, 
if felt, it left no visible memorial. 

In August 1852, my old friend William Falconer, mentioned 
in the preceding quotation, thus describes the cognizance of the 
Dudleys the Bear and Ragged Staff in a letter to the Author 
of the Italian Biography of Robert Dudley : 

" I remembered very well the monument you mention, and 
I went immediately to find it out ; it is but a small stone, about 
two or three feet long. There is no inscription, but simply the 
arms in the most common Italian style, without supporters, 
crest, or motto. The coronet is as above drawn, and that of 
a sort of Marquis instead of a Duke's, owing most likely to the 


ignorance of heraldry, so general in Italy, then and always. 
The stone has not even a name upon it, and is known only by 
tradition. It is fixed with many others on the wall of a little 
cloister, and most likely was originally in the Church 1 in which 
was the epitaph on the area di marmo of Anna Southwell 
(Dudley?). Perhaps the accompanying shield may have belonged 
to the Dudley's monument, for no heraldic distinctions are to 
be relied on in this country. However that may be, it is called 
the husband's at the present day. 2 " 

The following is an inscription quoted by Richa, but now 
lost, on Elizabeth Dudley, born Southwell ; composed, it is said, 
by Baccio Bandinelli : not the famous sculptor, but another and 
later Baccio Bandinelli of the same family, who possessed a 
house and property in Florence, and had a branch of the family 
at Cracow in Poland. 

In S. Pancrazio ne' sotterranei. Cassa di marmo. 







1 The inscription on Dudley's wife was on her tomb in the crypt, beneath, 
not in the Church. We quote it in the text. The tablet was probably only 
a memorial tablet in the Cloister. 

2 This marble is now in the Bargello (Museo Nazionale) at Florence. 
There is an exact copy of it in white marble on the wall of the inner Court 
of my Castle of Vincigliata. 









This inscription was probably placed in the Church of St. Pan- 
cras, but there is no monument, except the stone with the Bear 
and Ragged Staff, already mentioned, which may have served 
for Anna Dudley or for her mother Elizabeth. 1 

In the Uffizi Gallery is a portrait of Richard Southwell in 
a grand ebony frame with two coats of arms on silver shields, 
that of the Medici at the top, and probably the Southwell arms 
below, and an inscription as to Holbein painter to Henry VIII of 
England. This may have been a present from the English Court 
to the Grand-Duke, or may have been brought from England by 
Elizabeth Southwell or Dudley, and by them bequeathed to the 
Grand-Duke. 2 However the picture may have come there, it 

1 Researches as to the Southwell family prove that they have entirely 
disappeared from the County of Nottingham where they once held great pos- 
sessions. In Norfolk the name appears five times as owners of small hold- 
ings. In Suffolk, twice in the same manner. In Ireland the name of Vis- 
count Southwell appears in the list of English landed proprietors in 1875, as 
a land-owner in Limerick, Kerry, Cavan, Donegal, and Leitrim. In Walford's 
County families of the United Kingdom is a notice of Viscount Southwell, 
and in Burke's Peerage 1888, a long account of the family ; but in the ped- 
igree no mention is made of Elizabeth Southwell, wife of Robert Dudley. 

2 The Catalogue de la G-alerie Royale des Uffizi by CESARE RlGONl, 1893, 
thus describes it : 765. Holbein Jean lejeune, ne a Augsbourg en 1497, mart a 
Londres 1543. Portrait de Richard Southivell, conseiller d'Etat d' Henri VIII, 
Roi d' Angleterre. Buste en habit noir et avec un bonnet de la meme couleur. 
Dans le fond on lit en lettres d'or, X Julii anno H. VIII. XVIII. cetatis 
suce XXXI1L 


forms a memorial of the life in the Tuscan Court of Dudley 
and his wife. 

In the National Library of Florence is a copy of Michaud's 
BiograpMe Universelle, Paris, chez Madame Desplaces, 1855. It 
contains a short biography of Robert Dudley and his ancestors, 
full of the usual omissions and inaccuracies. In it the author 
says : ff II engagea le Grand-Due Ferdinand a declarer le port 
de Livourne, port franc." 

Apropos of this port, I have in my possession a MS. patent 
of the Grand-Duke Ferdinand's, creating the first English Consul 
at Leghorn, on March 13th 1596. He was appointed at the peti- 
tion of several English ship-owners, whose names are so mauled 
in the Italian spelling as to be unrecognisable; and the man chosen 
as first British Consul was an Irishman written as Capt. Raimondo 
d' Orchen, which I take to mean Capt. Raymond Dawkins. 

In the Guida storica ed artistica della citta e dei contorni 
di Livorno, per Giuseppe Piombanti, Livorno, Gio. Marini, Edi- 
tore, Tipografia Vannini, Casa Pia del Refugio, 1873, Dudley is 
honourably mentioned as having designed and constructed the 
new port of Leghorn, and as a most able naval architect and 
ship-builder. Thus : 

Eoberto Dudley Conte Warwick, cattolico emigrate Inglese, al 
servizio del Gran Duca, fu pure dbilissimo costruttore navale, il 
quote per conto del governo, costrul a Livorno alcuni enormi ga- 
Iconi da 40, da 60 ed anche da 90 cannoni, che furono limga- 
mente il tcrrore dei Turclii. 

The next error in the writers about Dudley may be found in 
the K Walks in Florence and its environs " by Susan and Joanna 
Horner, London, 1884, in which at page 437, of Vol. I, there are 
the following lines : I will italicize the errors. 

B Opposite the Palazzo Strozzi, a corner house between two 
streets bears a shield, with the lion rampant. Here lived and 


died Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, the son of Queen 
Elizabeth's favourite, the Earl of Leicester, and of Amy Eobsart, 
the unhappy heroine of Sir Walter Scott's * Kenilworth." Queen 
Elizabeth, from her mad attachment to Leicester, is said to have 
abetted her lover in the murder of his wife, and to have disowned 
this marriage, so that the son was not allowed to bear his heredi- 
tary title, although his possessions ivere restored to him, and he 
quitted England in 1612, to seek a refuge in Tuscany at the 
Court of Cosimo II, who appointed him chamberlain to the 
Grand-Duchess, sister of the German Emperor Matthias. At her 
request the Emperor created Dudley a Prince of the Holy Empire, 
with the title of Duke of Northumberland. He was a man of 
great learning and accomplishments ; his chief studies were 
mathematics and nautical science, and he designed the Mole at 
Leghorn, besides publishing works of value on navigation, etc." 
The many inaccuracies in these lines require especial atten- 
tion. The shield mentioned is high up on the very narrow part 
of the house, or Palazzo, and bears the well-known Rucellai arms. 
Underneath it, much lower down, there is an artistic little taber- 
nacolo in stone with graceful wrought iron work, containing a 
Virgin and child. These objects had probably been placed there 
by the Rucellai, and when they sold the adjoining little houses 
to Robert Dudley on the 5th of April 1614, were replaced by 
him in their former position, in compliance with the good old 
Florentine custom, that an inscription, or coat of arms, or work 
of art, once exposed to public view on a building, could never 
be removed, being considered as public property for ever. Robert 
Dudley lived in this Palazzo, but he did not die there; he 
died in the Villa Rinieri, now Corsini, just below the Royal 
Villa of Petraia, near Quarto, in 1649. He was the son of the 
Earl of Leicester, but certainly not of his first wife Amy Robsart, 
who never had a child and died in 1560, about thirteen years 


before Robert Dudley's birth. His mother was Lady Douglas 
Sheffield born Howard, who was a widow, when she was married 
to Leicester, before several well-known witnesses. It is unfair 
and unjust to condemn Leicester as the murderer of his first 
wife. Amy Robsart, and most unfair and unjust to accuse Queen 
Elizabeth of having abetted him in the murder. It is well known 
that an inquest was held on Amy Robsart's body, and that the 
verdict was death by tt mischance." It is a great mistake to say 
that Queen Elizabeth discovered Leicester's marriage with Amy 
Robsart. That marriage was celebrated in the presence of King 
Edward VI, on the 4th of June 1550, as the young King records 
the fact in his private journal in the following words : 

ff 1550, June 4th. Sir Robert Dudley, third (surviving) son of 
the Earl of Warwick, married Sir John Robsart's daughter, after 
which marriage there were certain gentlemen that did strive 
who should first take away a goose's head, which was hanged 
alive on two cross posts." 

This journal in the King's own handwriting is still preserved 
among the manuscripts in the British Museum, London. On 
the day of the marriage Sir Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 
was about eighteen years old, having been born on the 24th of 
June 1532, the same year in which the Queen, then Princess 
Elizabeth, was born. It has been said that they were born on 
the same day in the same year. It is certain, that during their 
childhood and early youth, they were often together. They were 
also prisoners at the same time in the Tower of London in the 
beginning of Queen Mary's reign, 1553. This may partly account 
for Elizabeth's great esteem for him. On her accession to the 
throne, Queen Elizabeth advanced Leicester to the highest 
honours, and gave him the earliest mark of her esteem and 
affection. In the first year of her reign, she appointed him 
Master of the Horse, with the fee of one hundred marks per 


annum, and in the commission for compounding with such as 
might be called to receive the honour of knighthood at the 
Queen's command, the name of Lord Robert Dudley was the 
first called. In addition to the association of early friendship, 
the Queen knew him to possess high qualities which would be 
valuable in a public servant, while he was the most accomplished 
gentleman in England. He was second only to Cecil in the 
strength of his understanding, and second neither to him nor 
to anyone else in his attachment to his mistress. It is well 
known that the Queen had declared that she would never marry 
a subject. 

To return to his son Robert Dudley, and the mention of his 
possessions. When Leicester died in 1588, his brother Ambrose, 
Earl of Warwick, dying soon after. Robert Dudley came into 
posfsession of Kenilworth and the other estates left to him by 
his father's will. He enjoyed them, residing occasionally at 
Kenilworth, till he left England, not in 1612 but in 1606. Kenil- 
worth and his other estates were confiscated by the Crown, on 
his refusal to obey the order of King James 1st, to return to Eng- 
land. They were never restored to him. 

When he arrived in Florence the reigning Grand-Duke was not 
Cosimo II, but Ferdinand 1st, whose wife was Christina, daughter 
of Carlo, Duca di Lorena. The wife of Cosimo II who succeeded 
Ferdinand 1st as Grand-Duke of Tuscany, was Maria Maddalena, 
daughter of the Archduke Carlo d' Austria, married to Cosimo II 
in 1608. It was not the German Emperor Matthias, who created 
Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, but Ferdinand II, Emperor 
of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1620. Dudley was Grand Cham- 
berlain, as has been before stated in this preface, to the three 
successive Grand-Duchesses of Tuscany. 

As to the Palazzo Dudley. On the 5th of April 1614, Dud- 
ley bought from Lodovico and Ferdinando the sons of Orazio 


Rucellai for four thousand scudi, house property in Florence, 
recorded as rt una casa e due casette poste nel popolo di San Pan- 
crazio." On the site, a wedge shaped piece of ground, between 
Via della Spada and Via della Vigna Nuova, the very narrow 
end of the wedge facing Via degli Strozzi, Dudley soon after 
had a Palace built. The principal front consisted of four sto- 
ries, including the ground floor, with ten windows to each story ; 
this front which looks on the Via della Vigna Nuova, measures 
about one hundred and thirty five feet. The truncated point of 
the wedge facing Via degli Strozzi, and on which appear the 
Rucellai coat of arms and the little talernacolo, is only about 
six feet wide. It has been said that Bartolommeo Ammannati 
was the architect, but dates make this doubtful it is more 
probable that Dudley himself designed or directed the build- 
ing of the Palace. It was his town house till his death at Ca- 
stello in 1649 ; there eight of his children were born and there 
his loving and beloved wife Elizabeth Southwell died on the 
10th September 1631. 

There are several other short notices of Dudley with the 
usual inaccuracies. Such as in the K Cyclopaedia " by Rees, 
London, 1829, and the " Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1 ' Cassel and Co., 
London, New York and Paris, where is an enigmatical mention 
of Dudley ff (10th Eng.) deriving the name Dudlei from Dodo, an 
Anglo Saxon who, about A. D. 700, erected a castle there." 

The notice in the Biografia Britannica is probably the most 
favourable to him, though the w Italian Biography " by the Rev. 
Vaughan Thomas which we have quoted is more full. 1 This 
writer was Vicar of Stoneleigh, where Dudley's English wife and 
her unmarried daughter were buried. On the 4th of June 1855, 

1 The book was published anonymously for private circulation, by Baxter, 
Oxford, and seems written quite as much as a testimonial to Lady Dudley 
Alice Leigh as a biography of the husband who deserted her. 


he preached the sermon at the annual commemoration of the 
Leigh family. He confesses in his book that on that occasion he 
largely pointed out and condemned all that was sinful, licentious, 
and adulterous in the conjugal and parental conduct of Sir Ro- 
bert Dudley, in his abandonment of a wife, Alice Leigh, whose 
virtues claimed not only fidelity but devoted attachment, and 
children whose infancy as well as number demanded a father's 
protection and guardianship. " But such observations," he adds, 
" belong more to the sermon rather than the memoir. 1 " 

Litta in his Famiglie Celebri noting Mario, Count of Carpe- 
gna, who married Teresa Dudley, names her as the daughter 
of Roberto Duca di Nortumbria, who had fled from England 
to escape the persecution against Catholicism, and taken shelter 
with his family in Italy. 

This may have been one of the reasons for Dudley leaving 
England, but not the only one : 

1st He was in love with his beautiful young cousin Elizabeth 
Southwell with whom it would have been impossible to live in Eng- 
land. As to his doing so abroad, it is not my province to judge ; 
2nd He was utterly disgusted by the treatment received 
in his attempt to prove by law his legitimacy; the Court of 
the Star Chamber, and, it is said, King James 1st himself, having 
sealed up his evidence, and arbitrarily put an end to the suit. 
After various efforts to obtain justice he got the Royal permis- 

1 My dear old friend, and colleague in the House of Commons and in the 
year 1842 my travelling companion, the late lamented Richard Monckton 
Milnes, afterwards Lord Houghton (known in his younger days as " Dicky 
Milnes," and " The Cool of the Evening," and a frequent guest at my Putney 
Hill Villa, where he was always called the Poet), told me when I last saw 
him in Florence in 1883, about two years before his death, that Walter Savage 
Landor, in conversation with him about Robert Dudley, said : " He was as 
great a scoundrel as his father," alluding probably to his desertion of his 
wife Alice Leigh and of his daughters by her. It was a short and sharp 
sentence on such a man. 


sion to travel for three years, and in 1605 left England never 
to return. As we have seen, he did not go alone. 

How he atoned for thus leaving behind him a wife, as well 
as his worries and indignities, by being a most faithful husband 
and loving father to the family formed under sunnier skies 
and auspices, this Memoir shall show. He did not leave his 
English family unprovided for, having left them most of his 
patrimony, and given liberal dowers to the girls. 

There is a very interesting series of portraits which il- 
lustrate the life of Dudley, in the magnificent book named 
tt Portraits of illustrious Personages of Great Britain, etc., " 
by Edmund Lodge, 2 vols folio, London, 1821. This was one of 
the delights of my boyhood, and is still a delight in my old age. 

There is the portrait and biographical notice of Walter 
Devereux, created Earl of Essex in 1572 by Queen Elizabeth; 
and of his son Robert Devereux Earl of Essex, by his wife 
Lettice Knollys, who was our Robert Dudley's stepmother, and 
his greatest enemy. She was a relative of Anna Bullen or 
Boleyn, Elizabeth's mother. Robert Devereux was much pat- 
ronised by his father-in-law, the Earl of Leicester, and in his 
expedition to Cadiz in 1596, he was accompanied among others 
by Leicester's son by Lady Sheffield the subject of our Mem- 
oir. In 1599 he was in Ireland, and for his rebellious tumult 
in London, was tried, condemned and executed in 1601, our 
Dudley being also implicated. 

Lodge also gives us the portrait of the Earl of Leicester. 
Robert Dudley's father, who, some historians say, caused Es- 
sex' death that he might marry Lettice his widow. She obtained 
such influence over him as caused him to do his son the great 
injustice of sometimes affirming and sometimes denying his 
legitimacy, and in the end leaving him the princely Castle and 
domain of Kenilworth, but with the sting and blot of illegitimacy. 


Lodge also gives a portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, son 
of James 1st, whose early death, before he had paid Eobert 
Dudley the stipulated price of Kenilworth, involved the latter in 
such long and tiresome litigations with the English government. 

Craik has as a frontispiece to his " Romance of the Peerage," 
Vol. Ill, a portrait of Robert Dudley himself, taken from the 
original miniature by Holland, now at Penshurst. It is the 
bust enlarged from the full length figure in Harding's Histor- 
ical Portraits. In his advertisement Craik adds that no other 
representation of Dudley exists, except an equestrian figure 
engraved by Pierre Daret, the only known impression of which 
is in possession of the Rev. William Staunton of Longbridge 
House, Warwickshire. 1 

Here I think some misapprehension exists. Pierre Daret 
engraved, it is true, an equestrian portrait of Dudley's son 
Cosimo, the Colonel of the guard to the Grand-Duke Cosimo II, 
which we have reproduced. Cosimo Dudley died in 1630 2 and it 
is possible this has been mistaken for the portrait of his father. 
Many years ago, I had a correspondence about Pierre Daret's 
portrait with the illustrious French historian Mignet, but without 
result as to any portrait of Robert Dudley by him. 

And now a word of explanation as to Robert Dudley's own 
books in my possession. 

Long ago I bought from Signer Pietro Bigazzi, together with 
many other books which had belonged to Dudley, the first two 
volumes and the fourth of the Arcane del Mare, the first edi- 
tion of his great work which was published at Forence in 1646-47, 
The third volume was wanting, perhaps lent to some friend 

1 It is described in Merridew's Catalogue of engraved portraits of No- 
bility, Gentry etc. connected with Warwickshire. 

2 See Tableaux historiques ou sont graves les illustres Francois et etran- 
gers de Vun et de Vautre sexe, par PIERRE DARET et LOUIS BOISSEVIN, 
gr. in 4 to , 1652-1656. 


who had forgotten to return it. Two or more years after this, 
Signer Bigazzi brought me, as a New Year's gift, the missing 
volume of this very same incomplete set. He had discovered 
it on the low wall or ledge of the Palazzo Riccardi, and bought 
it from the salesman who had permission to sell his books there. 
My joy on thus unexpectedly receiving the missing part may 
be easily imagined by collectors and lovers of old books. The 
four volumes thus happily reunited after a long separation were 
in the old binding with the arms of a Cardinal of the Medici 
family. The third had naturally suffered from ill treatment and 
exposure on the muricciuolo 1 of the Palazzo Riccardi. 

I had previously bought from Signor Bigazzi the two great 
folio volumes of the second edition of the Arcano del Mare, pub- 
lished after Dudley's death. Both editions are fully described 
in the Memoir. 

It seems probable that the Arcano del Mare was only a 
resume of several previous works by Dudley. One of them is 
the MS. volume, quarto size, of which I possess the original, 
mostly in Dudley's own hand. It is called the Direttorio Marittimo, 
and was written in very faulty Italian for the use and instruction 
of the officers of the Tuscan fleet. In it most of the subjects 
enlarged upon in the Arcano, are treated concisely, including 
R great circle sailing " and all kinds of navigation ; the admin- 
istrative management of a fleet, and its manoeuvres in a naval 
battle, etc. The book is in ancient covers of thick paper, and 
preceded by a dedication to the Grand-Duke, and by a sketch 
of Dudley's own naval life, written in his own hand with all 
his corrections and underlinings. 

1 Several of the ancient palaces of Florence have these ledges or stone- 
seats along their walls: they were originally for the convenience of depend- 
ents, who used to wait or rest there. They are now much used by sales- 
men. The one on the Palazzo Strozzi is a flower stall. 


His Catholicon, spoken of by Craik and Vaughan, I have never 
seen, though I possess a copy of Dr. Mario Cornacchino's amus- 
ing old book on the Warwick powder, which was to the se- 
venteenth century what Holloway's pills are to the nineteenth. 
For a description of the volume I refer you to the Memoir. 

His famous political tract K A discourse to correct the Exor- 
bitances of Parliaments and to enlarge the King's Revenue " is 
so curious that in August 1863 I made an exact copy of it in 
the library of the Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, London. 
It was taken from the rf Historical Collections of Private Pas- 
sages of State, etc. 1618-1629," by John Rushworth of Lincoln's 
Inn, London, 1721. Vol. I. Appendix 12. 

For its influence in England see Part IV of the Memoir, where 
this copy is inserted entire. 

Whether Dudley took his ideas of political economy from the 
Italian government then in force and approved of by him ; whe- 
ther the book was a kind of Machiavellian satire on the Tuscan 
government ; or whether the Grand-Duke found Dudley's maxims 
more worthy of following than the English did, cannot be proved. 
But certainly many of the measures advised by him are to this 
day in force in Italy, and are not, for modern life, good mea- 
sures. For instance Dudley advised that a Fortress should be 
in every town, the governor of which is not to be chosen from 
that town; that passports should be demanded for all travel- 
lers; that inn-keepers must take down the names of all those 
lodging with them ; that a tax should be put on salt, which is 
to be a government monopoly ; a decimal tax on men's estates ; 
the examining and stamping the weights every year ; taxes on 
every office and trade ; and " to make two hundred men titulate, 
and they to pay for their titles." Now all these are in the Ita- 
lian scheme of government, even the last. Vide the Order of 
St. Lazzaro. 


Among my Dudley books is a dainty little volume styled 
tt La Assontione di Maria Vergine in Venezia appresso i Vari- 
schi, 1622." It has an artistic title page, on the top is the cog- 
nizance of the crowned Bear and Ragged Staff, with an angel 
on either side, and Christ and the Madonna as supporters. 
Below is the Dudley coat of arms. 

It is dedicated ft All' 111. et Excell. Sig. Roberto Dudlei Duca 
di Northumbria et Conte di Varick et Leicester dedicata. Con 
licenza de' Sup. et Privilegio, da D. Mauritio Moro Canonico. 
Venetia da S. Giorgio d'Alega, li 20 Dicembre 1622. " In the 
dedicatory address is a great laudation of Robert Dudley and 
of his wife, and of all their most noble and illustrious ancestors 
and families, especially a branch of the Southwells, one of 
whom, Baron Don Roberto, settled in Venice, and whose son, 
Don Henrico, was Canon of St. Mark's, and a poet withal. 

And now a word about the homes of the Dudley, and what 
is left of them to the present day. The family home in the 
Vigna Nuova is still to be seen, and is so fully described in 
the text as to need no description here. The Villa Rinieri, 
Dudley's country house and the place of his death, is now the 
handsome Villa Corsini, at Quarto, just under the Royal Villa 
of La Petraia. It has beautiful grounds and gardens with se- 
cular ilex and cypress trees, whose shadows certainly fell on 
Robert Dudley and his children when they walked there. 

In 1858 I spent a day at Piombino, the married home of Maria 
Princess of Piombino, Dudley's eldest daughter, and enjoyed a 
refreshing swim in the clear blue sea of the tiny bay. It was 
then a very small port, opposite Rio in the Isle of Elba. Prob- 
ably in the seventeenth century it was a much more important 
place, and 'enlivened by the palace of the Appiani family. It 
was here that Cosimo Dudley died in 1631. 

In October 1864, I also visited the Castle of Olivola, the 


home of Maria Maddalena, Marchesa Malaspini, Dudley's second 
daughter. The Castle, which is well situated on high ground 
between Sarzana and Fivizzano, still existed in a deserted and 
neglected state. The large marble coat-of-arms of the Malespini 
still holds its place over the principal entrance. It looked to 
me more like an English country house than an Italian feudal 
stronghold. 1 A few poor looking houses and a church stand 
near it. In a small room in the Castle, once an oratory, there 
still remained a white marble slab, bordered by a strip of reddish 
Porto Venere marble with the following insription : 










This inscription which records the burial place of the young 
Earl of Pembroke, who died at Dudley's house in Florence, was 
removed a few years ago from Olivola 2 by the late Earl of Car- 
narvon, and is now preserved at Highclere Castle. 

The other Dudley possessions at Fiesole, of which Don Carlo's 
son Don Antonio, a cleric, was the last possessor of the name, 

1 Until the French Republican invasion at the end of the last century 
almost all that part of the country was possessed by the Malaspini, as feudal 
Lords under the Emperor ; and each of the family had his castle or stronghold. 

2 Olivola now belongs to Mr. Browne, the former well-known British 
Consul at Genoa, who also lias a marine Villa at Porto Fino near Lady 
Carnarvon's Villa, Alta Chiara High Clere. 


are now reduced, as I have said at the beginning of this pre- 
face, to peasants' houses on my podere, retaining very little of 
their former state, except a few bits of stone work which mark 
their former style. 

This rambling preface is much more lengthy than I had 
intended to make it, but I could not resist the desire to lay 
before the reader everything that appeared to me interesting 
about Dudley, his family and descendants. 

The following Memoir will be a mere chronicle of the prin- 
cipal events in Dudley's life. It has no pretension to being a 
complete biography, but it is founded on facts, and supported 
by good evidence. My hope is that it may give as much plea- 
sure to the reader as it has given me in the writing of it. 

In the Appendix, I have reproduced copies in the original 
language of all the most important manuscripts and documents, 
which I trust may prove of use to some future historian. 







)BERT DUDLEY was born at Shene, Richmond, in, 
or about the year 1573. His father was Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester, Minister and favourite of Queen Eliza- 
beth; his mother was Lady Douglas Sheffield, born 
Howard, widow of Lord Sheffield. 

I am not going to enter at length on the moot ques- 
tion of Dudley's legitimacy, on which point he was 
very unfairly treated. Proofs were not wanting that 
Leicester and Lady Douglas had been married in the 
presence of well-known witnesses, but the marriage 
was not publicly acknowledged. Various reasons have 
been assigned for this concealment, some political and 
others private ; the most probable seems to be the one 
given by the author of i Leycester's Commonwealth,' 1 
i. e. fear of the Queen's displeasure, and the outward 

1 From " Leycester's Commonwealth, conceived, spoken and pub- 
lished with most earnest protestation of all dutifull goodwill and aflfec- 
tion toward this realm." Printed 1641, pag. 21-22. 

28 PART I. 

maintenance of his boast that he was privately mar- 
ried to her Majesty. 

The same contemporary author writes, in speaking 
of Leicester's subsequent marriage to Lady Essex : " But 
for this controversie, whether the marriage be good or 
no, I leave it to be tried hereafter between my young 
Lord of Denbigh (Lady Essex 7 son by Leicester) and 
Master Philip Sydney, whom the same most concerneth ; 
for that my Lord was contracted to another Lady be- 
fore, that yet liveth (whereof Master Edward Diar and 
Master Edmond Tilney both Courtiers, can be wit- 
nesses), and consummated the same contract by gene- 
ration of children." 

That prophesied trial did truly come off in 1605, 
and Lady Sheffield, as well as three or four other wit- 
nesses swore to the marriage having taken place at 
her house of Esher in Surrey by a lawful Minister of 
the Church, Sir Edward Horsey giving her away. 

During his earliest years the boy Dudley lived with 
his mother, but when he was about five years old she 
gave him up to his father's charge. This was in 1578, 
the year in which the unacknowledged wife was driven 
to profit by the freedom forced upon her, and for pro- 
tection to marry Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton. In 
the trial of 1605 she stated as her reason for this 
* that her life had been repeatedly threatened, and 
attempts had been made to poison her, and that her 
hair and her nails had fallen off; in consequence of 
which she felt no safety for her person, unless she put 
herself in such a situation as to render herself perfectly 
secure." 1 

Report of the Barony of Lisle, pag. 254. 


The Earl of Leicester may have forced her into this 
marriage ; he certainly took advantage of it to celebrate 
publicly his union with Lady Essex, who had practi- 
cally been his wife privately for some time previous. 
Consequently his son Robert was placed at school, or 
more probably resided in the house and under the care 
of Sir John Dudley, a kinsman of the Earl of Leices- 
ter, who lived (says Lysons, in his Magna Britannia) at 
Stoke Newington, and not at Newington Butts as stated 
by others. Lysons in his mention of Sir John Dudley 
repeats the tradition of Leicester himself having visited 
his little son there. Owen, or Evan, Jones, who was 
subsequently witness for Sir Robert Dudley in the well- 
known trial of 1605, confirms that statement. 

In 1583 the boy was at a school, or with a private 
tutor at Offington, near Worthing in Sussex, under the 
charge of his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, who 
had a residence at or near Worthing. The memory 
of his having lived there is still preserved at Worth- 
ing, in the name of Warwick House. 

In 1 5 88 he was at the University of Oxford. The entry 
of his name appears in the book of Christ-Church College 
with the title Comitis Filius (son of an Earl) 7 th May 1588. 

In the same year, 1588, he served at the camp of 
Tilbury as Colonel under his father the Earl of Leices- 
ter, who was Generalissimo. This fact is stated by 
himself in the Arcano del Mare and in his MS. volume 
the Direttorio Marittimo. 

In 1588, the Earl of Leicester died at Cornbury, 
when on his way to Kenilworth. , In his last will dated 
Middleburgh, 1 st August 1587, 1 Leicester with a folly 

See Appendix, n. I. 

30 PART I. 

equal to his injustice called his son ' his base son ' 
though he left him eventual heir, after the death of 
Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, of Kenilworth and of other 
estates. The inserting of the fatal word l base ' was 
probably due to the unbounded influence obtained over 
Leicester by his third wife Lettice Knollys, the widow 
of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex. For if Leicester 
in his last will had owned his son Robert by Lady 
Douglas Sheffield, to be his legitimate son, his sub- 
sequent marriage with Lettice Knollys, Countess of 
Essex, as an inevitable consequence became null and 
void, and she would have lost her great position as 
Leicester's lawful wife and widow. 

As to Lady Sheffield's suspicion that some system 
of slow poisoning was tried upon her, it is curious to 
observe that Leicester was more than once suspected 
of having persons, who stood in his way, removed by 
poison, to name two of them, the husband of Lady 
Douglas Sheffield, and the husband of Lettice Knollys, 
Countess of Essex. Giulio Borgherini, an Italian fol- 
lower of Leicester's, commonly called Doctor Julio, was 
supposed to be the provider of the poison. 

The death of the Earl of Essex on August 21 st 1576 
is reported by the author of Leicester's Commonwealth 
(page 23-24), who adds " and so he died in the way 
of an extreme flux, caused by an Italian recipe, as 
all his friends are well assured, the maker whereof 
was a Chyrurgeon (as is believed) that then was newly 
come to my Lord from Italy, 1 a cunning man and sure 
in operation. .... Nor must you marvaile though all 

1 Here the author is mistaken, Dr Julio having been one of the 
witnesses of Lady Sheffield's marriage some years previously. 


these died in divers manners of outward diseases, for 
this is the excellency of the Italian Art for which this 
Chyrurgeon Doctor Julio was entertained so carefully, 
who can make a man dye in what manner and show 
of sickness you will, by whose intructions no doubt 
but his Lordship is now cunning." 

Not so cunning however but that on Leicester's 
death there were whispers of his having been himself 

It is certain that his w r idow Lettice Knollys was 
afterwards married to Sir Christopher Blount Kt. and 
lived till the year 1634. The same consideration as to 
her position, also accounts for her fierce and successful 
opposition to Sir Robert Dudley's attempts in 1605 to 
prove the marriage of his father and mother, and in 
consequence his own legitimacy. 

In 1589 his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, died, 
and Dudley came into possession of Kenil worth, and of 
the other estates left to him by his father's will. 

In 1581 he had engaged by a contract per verba de 
present^ in the presence of good and faithful witnesses 
to marry Frances Vavasour, one of Queen Elizabeth's 
maids of honour. The Queen however refused her con- 
sent on account of Dudley's youth, and Frances Vava- 
sour subsequently married Thomas Shirley, of the Fer- 
rers family. 1 

After this early matrimonial disappointment Robert 
Dudley seems to have given his mind to travels, and 

1 See Appendix, n. II. See also the attestations of Edward Barker 
Causarum Ecdesiasticarum sive Majestatis Registrarius ac Notarius 
Publicus, London, 3 November, 1592, and of Guittelmary Auberie Le- 
gum Doctor Alma Curia Cant, et de Arcubus. London Officialis prin- 
cipalis. Datum Londini 6 die Novembris anno Domini 1592, relating 
to Dudley's matrimonial contract with Frances Vavasour. 

32 PART I. 

for those days went far and wide. From a boy he al- 
ways had a love of the sea, and for its development he 
shall speak for himself. In the Proem to his Italian 
book the Direttorio Marittimo* after a dedication to the 
Grand-Duke he says : " Setting aside many superfluous 
circumstances which have occasioned the author to turn 
his attention to the theory and practice of the art of 
navigation, suffice it to say that he is Nephew of three 
Grand Admirals of England (or Generalissimi of the Sea, 
which is one of the highest offices held under that of 
the Crown) and that he had from his youth a natural 
sympathy for the sea, and this in spite of his having 
in 1588 held the very honorable post of Colonel in 
the land forces, which he exercised under the command 
of his father, the General in Chief and Grand Master 
of England. He determined at any cost to enter the 
marine army, on which at that time the reputation 
and greatness of England depended. He had also a 
great desire to discover new countries, therefore from 
the age of 17 he gave himself to the study of navi- 
gation, and of marine discipline and war. In fact he 
wanted to blend naval command together with military 
emprise by land, in India and other parts to which 
navigation should take him. Therefore he built and 
manned ships of war, in which he sought to place the 
best pilots that were to be found, and in whose great 
knowledge and experience he trusted implicitly. One, 
the famous mariner Abram Kendal, might be called 

1 Written in Italian by Dudley himself and of which I possess the 
original MS. copy. The only fragment of title page remaining to it is 
headed Direttorio Marittimo di Don Roberto Dudley, Duca di Nort- 
umbria, fatto per ordine del Serenissimo Gran Duca di Toscana suo 


his master, from him he learned enough navigation 
for an Admiral. But although Queen Elizabeth then 
reigning in England would not allow such a mere youth 
to break his maiden lance in an emprise requiring 
so much knowledge of the world, and in which many 
veteran Captains had fared so ill, 1 and lost both men 
and ships, she contented him by allowing him to make 
a voyage. Thus it came to pass that in 1594 he began 
this voyage to the West Indies, to discover and open 
the way to the Empire of Guiana or Walliana (sic) in 
America, much renowned in those times as a great 
and wealthy nation ; which he did with such success, 
being both General of his men and Admiral of his 
ships, that he made himself master of the Island of 
Trinidad, discovered Guiana, 2 fought and captured the 
galleons of the enemy, returning at the year's end 
with much useful spoil. 

" After this he was engaged in so many honourable 
actions by sea and land in the service of the Crown, 
that not being able to take the desired voyage to 
China, he sent his ships and men there under com- 
mand of Captain Wood, a very brave sailor. He took 
the command of the great English fleet in 1596, in the 
absence of his uncle, the Earl of Nottingham, High Ad- 
miral. The year following (1597), he was Admiral of 
the English vanguard in the battle of Cadiz in Spain/ 

1 Apropos of Elizabeth's feeling on this subject I have in the Ap- 
pendix, n. Ill, reprinted a correspondance between Queen Elizabeth 
and King James on the subject from Rymers Foedera. Tom. XVI, 
pag. 18-19. 

2 He made a map of Guiana, which he published in the 
del Mare. 

3 Dudley thus reports this emprise in his Arcano del Mare under 
the head of Cadiz : In questo golfo e porto di Cades : nel 1597 del 


34 PART I. 

when they burnt the fleet from the Indies, and took 
the city. Then he besieged Faro in Algariia (Algarve) 
in Portugal, and next took the command of the English 
galleons sent to the rescue when Calais in France was 
taken by His Serene Highness the Arch-Duke A. Men- 
toza (Mendoza). In the which and divers other actions 
and voyages he has learned what he knows of the art 
of navigation, and the practice of command and ma- 
rine and military discipline combined. 

" In especial he practised the science of navigation 
by grand circles with practical longitude, as explained 
in the Arcano del Mare.' 

Such is the summary of his nautical life, which 
Dudley gave the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, in the book 
of sailing directions prepared for the Tuscan fleet. He 
gave a much more detailed account of his maiden 
emprise, the voyage to Trinidad, in a letter to the 
Rev. Richard Hackluyt, Prebend of Westminster, the 
great writer on sea voyages in the time of Elizabeth 
and James I st . 1 Hackluyt heads this 

mese di giugno V armata Inglese fece giornata con V armata Spagnuola 
e dell' Indie, e gV Inglesi restorno vincitori e presono la Citia, alia 
quale fazzione fu presente V autore, il quale conduceva la vanguardia 
dell' armata Inglese. 

1 This Mr Hackluyt was a well-known man in his day, as may be 
judged by the following letter from Queen Elizabeth to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, dated 

" At Greenwich Sunday, 18 th of May, 
in the forenoon, 1600. 


" We are moved to recommend unto your good favor, Mr Hack- 
luyt, a learned preacher, that hath not only taken great pains in his 
calling, and served a long time Sir Edward Stafford, Knight, being 
then Her Majesty's Ambassador in France in a dangerous time, but 
hath bestowed his time and taken very great pains in matter of na- 
vigation and discoveries, a labor of great desert and use, wherein 


" A voyage of the honourable gentleman Mr Robert 
Dudley, now Knight, to the Isle of Trinidad and the 
coast of Paria, with his return home by the Isle of 
Granta (Granada), Santa Cruz, St. Juan de Puertorico 
(Porto Rico), Mona Zacheo, the shoalds called Abreojos, 
and the Isle of Bermuda. In which voyage he and his 
company tooke and sunke nine Spanish ships whereof 
one was an armada of 600 tunnes. Written at the 
request of Mr Richard Hackluyt." 

After a certain prologue Dudley relates: " I weighed 
ancker from Southampton road the 6 th of Novem- 
ber 1594. Upon this day, my selfe in the " Beare," a 
ship of 200 tunnes, as Admirall ; and Captaine Munck 
in the " Beare 's Whelpe, 1 ' Vice-Admirall ; with two 
small pinnesses, called the " Frisking " and the ff Eare- 
wig," I passed through the Needles, and within two 
days after bare in with Plimmouth. But I was en- 
forced to returne backe. 

" Having parted company with my Vice-Admirall, I 
went alone wandering on my voyage, sailing along the 
coast of Spaine, within view of Cape Finisterre and 
Cape St. Vincent, the north and south capes of Spaine. 
In which space, having many chases, I could meet 

there may be after occasion to employ him, and therefore our desire 
is for the good of her Majesty's service that he might be provided 
of some competent living to reside in these parts. And because we 
are given to understand that the benefice of great Allhallows, in Thames 
Street, is like to be void, (being in your Lordship's gift), we do ear- 
nestly pray your good Lordship, that at our mediation, you will be 
pleased to bestow the same, if by the decease of the incumbent it 
shall be void, on this learned and painful minister. Wherein your 
Lordship shall not only have due and honorable consideration of his 
deserts and pains, but give us occasion to think ourselves beholden 
unto you in granting your goodwill unto him at our motion and 
entreaty. So etc. . . 

" P. C. REG. ELIZ." 

36 PART I. 

with none but my countreymen, or countrey's friends. 
Leaving these Spanish shores, I directed my course, 
the 14 th of December, towards the Isles of the Canaries. 
Here I lingered twelve dayes for two reasons : the one, 
in hope to meete my Vice-Admirall ; the other, to get 
some vessel to remove my pestered men into, who being 
140 almost in a ship of 200 tunnes, there grew many 
sicke. I tooke two very fine caravels under the calmes 
of Tenerif and Palma, which both refreshed and amended 
my company, and made me a fleet of 3 sailes. In one 
caravel, called " Intent," I made Benjamin Wood Cap- 
taine ; in the other one Captaine Wentworth. Thus 
cheared as a desolate traveller, with the company of 
my small and newe erected Fleete, I continued my 
purpose for the West Indies. 

" Riding under this White Cape two daies, and walk- 
ing on shore to view the countrey, I found it a waste 
desolate, barren, and sandie place, the sand running 
in drifts like snow, and very stony ; for so is all the 
countrey sand upon stone (like Arabia Deserta, and 
Petrea), and full of blacke venemous lizards, with some 
wild beasts and people which be tawny Moores, so 
wilde, as they would but call to my caravels from the 
shore who road very neere it. I now caused my Master 
Abraham Kendall to shape his course directly for the 
isle of Trinidad in the West Indies ; which after 22 dayes 
we descried, and the 1 st of February came to anker 
under a point thereof, called Curiapan, in a bay which 
was very full of pelicans, and I called it Pelican' Bay. 
About 3 leagues to the eastward of this place we 
found a mine of Mercazites, which glister like golde 
(but all is not golde that glistereth), for so we found 
the same nothing worth, though the Indians did as- 


sure us it was Calvori, which signifieth gold with 
them. These Indians are a fine shaped and a gentle 
people, all naked and painted red, their commanders 
wearing crowns of feathers. These people did often 
resort unto my ship, and brought us hennes, hogs, 
plantans, potatos, pinos, tobacco, and many other pretie 
commodities, which they exchanged with us for hatch- 
ets, knives, hookes, belles and glasse buttons. 

The country is fertile, and ful of fruits, strange 
beasts, and foules, whereof munkeis, babions, and parats 
were in great abundance. 

Right against the northernmost part of Trinidad, 
the maine was called the high land of Paria, the rest 
a very lowe land. Morucca I learned to be full of a 
greene stone called Tacarao, which is good for the 
stone. Caribes I learned to be man-eaters or canibals, 
and great enemies to the Islanders of Trinidad. 

" In the high land of Paria I was informed by divers 
of these Indians, that there was some Perota, which 
with them is silver, and great store of most excellent 

" This discovery of the mine I mentioned to my 
company, who altogether mutinied against my going in 
search for it, because they something feared the villany 
(sic) of Abraham Kendal, who would by no means go. 

" I gave them their directions to follow, written 
under mine owne hand. But they went from me, and 
entred into one of the mouthes of the great river 

" I was told of a rich nation, that sprinkled their 
bodies with the powder of golde, and seemed to be 
guilt, and that farre beyond them was a great towne 
called El Dorado, with many other things. 

38 PART I. 

" In my boate's absence, there came to me a pin- 
nesse of Plimmouth, of which Captaine Popham was 
chiefe, who gave us great comfort. 

" I stayed some sixe or eight dayes longer for Sir 
Walter Kalegh (who, as we surmized, had some purpose 
for this discovery), to the ende that, by our intelligence 
and his boates, we might have done some good : but 
it seemed he came not in sixe or eight weeks after. 

" And after carefully doubling the shouldes (shoals) 
of Abreojos, I now caused the Master (hearing by a 
Pilote that the Spanish Fleete ment to put out of 
Havana) to beare for the Meridian of the yle of Ber- 
muda, hoping there to finde the Fleete. The Fleete 
I found not, but foule weather enough to scatter many 
Fleetes ; which companies left inee not, till I came to 
the yles of Flores and Cuervo : w r hither I made the 
more haste, hoping to meete some great Fleete of Her 
Majestie my Sovereigne, as I had intelligence, and to 
give them advise of this rich Spanish Fleete : but find- 
inge none, and my victuals almost spent, I directed 
my course for England. 

" Keturning alone and worse manned by half than 
when I went foorth, my fortune was to meet a great 
Armada of this Fleete of some 600 tunnes well ap- 
pointed, with whom I fought board and board for two 
days, being no way able in all possibilitie with fifty 
men to board a man of warre of sixe hundreth tunnes. 
And having spent all my powder, I was constrained 
to leave her, yet in such distresse without sailes and 
mastes, and hull so often shot through with my great 
ordinance betweene winde and water, that being three 
hundred leagues from land, I dare say, it was impos- 
sible for her to escape sinking. Thus leaving her by 


necessitie in this miserable estate, I made for England 
where I arrived at St. Ives in Cornwall, about the latter 
end of May 1595, scaping most dangerously in a great 
fogge the rocks of Silly. 

' Thus by the providence of God, landing safely, I 
was kindely entertained by all my friends, and after 
a short time learned more certaintie of the sinking of 
that great scippe, being also reputed rich by divers 
intelligences out of Spaine. 

" In this voyage, I and my Fleete tooke, sunke, and 
burnt nine Spanish ships ; which was losse to them, 
though I got nothing." 

In 1596 when on his voyage to America, or perhaps 
before sailing from England, he made some nautical 
instruments, as may be seen from the following inscrip- 
tions. In the Gabinetto Fisico in the Specola, or Natural 
History Museum of Florence, there is a copper instru- 
ment (a compass ?) with the inscription c Sir Eobert 
Duddeley was the Inventor of this instrument 1596 ' 
and another much larger brass instrument to find the 
time of the ebb and flow of the tides in divers places, 
it had a brass base 1 Iracdo (1 ft. 11 in.) in diameter, 
and is inscribed ' Sir Robert Duddeley was the inventor 
of this instrument.' If the reader can understand what 
this invention was like from Dudley's description of it 
in mixed English and Italian, on a loose sheet of paper 
among my Dudley MSS., I here reproduce it for his 
benefit. Perhaps the accompanying illustration may 
elucidate its complexities. 

Strumento per trovar T ora del flussl del Mare in di- 
versi luogJii. Tondo di ottone diametro 1 braccio Fioren- 
tino. ' Sir Robert Duddeley was the inventor of this 

40 PART I. 

Nel mezzo : i The cen. of the ecliptick' ' The cen. 
of excentr.' ; sul cercliio media : i The prosthaphereses 
(sic) of the Sunn.' ' The distance of the Moone from 
the earth in semidiameters of the earth ' ; sul cerclno 
esterno : i The yearly motion of the Moone anomila3 


from the Apogeon of the Sun great Epicicle by 360 
and Meridian of London.' 

i The yearly motion of the Moone middle place from 
the Sunnes, by 360 for the merid. of London according 
to the table of Renaldus which differ eth 8. 37 from 
Maginus.' II cercliio esterno di circa 1 V* soldo di B F 


e fisso la parte dentro questo cerchio gira di piu vi e 
una scaletta graduata, die gira sulla parte movibile del tondo. 

Sulla faccia dove vi e la scaletta : i The oblique zo- 
diack only used with the howers to give the tyme and 

These instruments had probably been brought by 
Dudley to Florence in 1606 and placed by him in 
the G-abinetto Fisico, with the date of their invention 
by him. 1 

1 The Saggio Istorico della Eeal G-alleria di Firenze, Florence, 1779, 
says (pag. 154, vol. II) : " The collection of ancient scientific instruments 
in the G-abinetto di Fisica was increased in 1654 by some brought 
from Germany by Prince Mathias, brother of Ferdinand II, and by 
others which Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and English 
gentleman, had left the Grand-Duke when he died." 



J_N 1601 Dudley fell under the displeasure of Queen 
Elizabeth, for taking part in the rebellion of the young 
Earl of Essex. The Earl had been under arrest in his 
own house for some time, having offended the Queen 
though it is not precisely known for what reason. Lotti, 
the Italian resident at London, opines that he had 
made some negotiations with the King of Scotland 
which were displeasing to Her Majesty of England. 1 
Tired of being a prisoner he protested, and the matter 
was placed by the Queen in the hands of Parliament. 
But this was too slow for the young rebel, who got 
his friends together, Dudley and Blount among them, 
and with 1100 followers and partizans, marched into 
London. The Earl of Essex, Dudley, Blount, and oth- 
ers were taken prisoners. The Earl was subsequently 
beheaded, as we know to the Queen's eternal remorse. 
Dudley got off easily, being shortly after released. 

His much journeying threw Robert Dudley into com- 

1 See Lotti's account of this in Appendix, n. IV. 

44 PART II. 

munication with other great navigators of the day, 
among whom was Thomas Cavendish, who had three 
young and charming sisters. With one of these the 
young sailor, fresh from his voyages, fell in love, and 
being a ' heretik ' (i. e. protestant), and deeming himself 
free from Frances Vavasour, he married her. The 
bride died soon after, in 1596 without issue, and in 
the same year he married Alice second daughter of 
Sir Thomas Leigh, Knight and Baronet of Stoneleigh, 
Warwickshire . 

From 1596 to 1605 Dudley was living partly in 
the country at Kenilworth, and partly in London. 
Alicia Leigh during that time bore him four daughters : 

First Alicia Douglassia, baptized at Kenilworth 
25th September 1597, who died May 1621, setatis 24. 
By will nuncupatory she bequeathed to her mother 
<* 3000 to lay out for pious and charitable uses. 

Frances, the second daughter, lived with her mother 
in Dudley House, Saint Giles, London, till she married 
Sir Gilbert Knyveton of Bradley, Derbyshire. 

Anne, the third daughter, married the great lawyer, 
Sir Robert Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st. 
She died about 1663. 

Catherine, the fourth and youngest daughter, married 
that distinguished Royalist in the time of Charles 1st, 
Sir Richard Leveson, K. B., of Trentham Hall, Stafford- 
shire, ancestor of the present Duke of Sutherland. 

These years of Dudley's married life with Alice Leigh 
were years full of worries to him. He was under the 
Queen's displeasure for his share in the Essex affair. 
It was also the time in which he was fighting at long 
odds for his honour, his name and nobility. 

Since he had become heir to Kenilworth he wished 


to prove that lie had inherited it as his right, and not 
as a father's tardy reparation to a base-born son. For 
this cause he attempted by proceedings at law to prove 
himself the legitimate son of Robert, Earl of Leicester, 
and of Douglassia late Lady Sheffield, born Howard, 
widow of Lord Sheffield. There seemed some hope of 
success, and the Ecclesiastical Court which, as the 
plague was raging in London, was that year held at 
Lichfield was still sifting his evidence, when on Feb- 
ruary 10th 1603, Lady Lettice, late Countess of Essex, 
Leicester's widow, filed a bill in the Star Chamber, 
through Sir Edward Coke, against Sir Robert Dudley 
and others for defamation. On October 18th of the 
same year Lord Henry Sydney of Penshurst, who had 
married Mary Dudley, Leicester's sister, stopped the 
proceedings at Lichfield, and brought all the depositions 
to the Star Chamber. 

Here Robert Dudley's efforts could avail nought, 
although, as we have before said, Lady Sheffield and 
many witnesses swore to her marriage at Esher. All 
the documents proving this were sealed up by order of 
the Council of the Star Chamber ; while the evidence on 
the side of Lettice Lady Essex's marriage with Leicester 
was taken alone and unquestioned. On this partial 
evidence Lady Sheffield, Doctor Babington, and Sir 
Thomas Leigh Dudley's father-in-law were all 
found guilty of conspiracy 

This one-sided law-suit ended on May 13th 1605, in 
a verdict against Dudley, his whole evidence being sealed 
up and put away, and in vain did he try to get the 
judgment reversed. 1 The Essex family together with 

1 See Lotti's letter about it. Appendix, n. Y. 

46 PART II. 

the Sydneys, and their most powerful party were too 
strong for him. The trial evidently created opposite 
impressions in royal circles, for in 1604 James 1st, who 
ratified the decree of the Star Chamber, promulgated 
an act " to restrain all persons from marriage, until 
their former wives and former husbands be dead." That 
Charles 1st took a different view of Dudley's case from 
that of his father we see by the plain wording of 
his patent creating Alice Leigh Duchess Dudley, one 
phrase of which runs : " And whereas our dear father 
not knowing the truth of the lawful birth of the 
aforesaid Sir Robert (as we piously believe) granted 
away the titles of the said Earldoms to others, which 
we now hold not fit to call in question, nor ravel into 

our deceased Father's actions And yet we, having 

a very deep sense of the great injuries done to the said 
Robert Dudley and the Lady Alice Dudley and their 
children, are of opinion that in justice and equity these 
possessions so taken from them do rightly belong to 
them, etc., etc. 1 '' 

The unfair sentence of the Star Chamber seems 
to have completely unhinged Dudley's character, and 
brought on that crisis in which to revenge his slighted 
honour he cast off all allegiance to England, her laws, 
and even her domestic claims on him. Even her re- 
ligion, for he turned Roman Catholic, and then finding, 
or feigning to find, that his union with Alice Leigh 
was adulterous and against the Roman Catholic law 
of marriage (his former wife Frances Vavasour not 
being dead at the time), he repudiated her. This at 
least was Dudley's own excuse for the repudiation of 

1 See Appendix, n. VI. The patent of Charles 1st. 


Alice Leigh, and subsequent marriage with Elizabeth 
Southwell. It is a case of conscience which will be 
judged differently according as it is looked at from 
different points of view. No doubt his life with Alice 
Leigh after his character and rank were abased by the 
decree of the Star Chamber, was no longer a happy 
one; for we see from her subsequent behaviour that 
she was a woman who held greatly to rank and 

At length in 1606 he took that decisive step which 
led him to the Grand-Ducal Court of Tuscany and 
exercised a ruling influence on all the rest of his life. 
Irritated and rendered desperate by this harsh and 
unjust treatment, he, at the end of 1605, obtained the 
royal permission to travel in foreign parts for three 
years, and went, never to return ; moreover he did 
not go alone. He was accompanied by a young cousin 
of great spirit and beauty named Elizabeth South- 
well, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Southwell of Wood- 
rising, Norfolk. 1 Her mother was eldest daughter of 
Charles, second Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High 
Admiral. Through this connection with Lady Shef- 
field's family the young people were first cousins once 

A very interesting relazione (report) in the Medi- 
cean Archives contains a graphic account of this part 
of Dudley's life. It was written on July 26th 1611 
by an Englishman in Paris, and is addressed to the 
Father Confessor of the Duchess of Tuscany, who had 
evidently set his reverence to obtain information about 

1 Sir Robert Southwell was one of the most distinguished naval 
commanders in the year of the Invincible Spanish Armada, 1588. 

48 PART II. 

the then new members of her Court. The infor- 
mant is very cautious, he signs himself with illeg- 
ible hieroglyphics, and says that for the future his 
signature will be R. Tomasine. He supplicates that 
what he writes on English matters shall be communi- 
cated to no one but the Cavalier Yinta (Minister of 
the Grand-Ducal Court), and he especially hopes that 
the Earl of Warwick will not know that he has written, 
for ff he holds him in great honour and is his faithful 
friend," but he adds, "the less secrets are divulged 
the more they remain secrets." 

After giving Dudley's pedigree and early life, and 
an account of the trial, he goes on in very good Italian : 
tt In which law-suit this Sydney was much favoured by 
the Earl of Salisbury, now Sicill (Cecil) while on the 
part of Dudley were the Count of Hertford and all 
the House of Howard. But the great influence of 
Cecil obtained the consent of the King, who was pres- 
ent when the sentence was given in favor of the Syd- 
neys, and against this Robert Dudley. 

" After which sentence being sdegnato moltissimo 
(extremely indignant) the said Robert Dudley, who but 
few years before had been so happily married to a 
daughter of the good knight Sir John Lis (Leigh), re- 
quested and obtained leave from the King to leave 
England for three years, and having caused nearly 
40,000 scudi of his own estate to be secretly conveyed 
to France, he departed, at the age of 37 years. 1 He 
was followed by a young lady of the Court, a most 
beautiful girl of the Havar (Howard) family, 19 years 
old, and this under the pretext of religion, both of 

A mistake, he was 32. 


them having professed the Roman Catholic faith. In 
Lyons, where he resides at present, he is much honored, 
and gives it to be understood that he will return to 
England no more. His young relative is constantly 
seen with him in public, as a kind of protest that 
there is no guilty concealment between them. 1 " 

So runs the report from France. That this elope- 
ment in high life caused a great sensation in England 
we gather from other documents. The Italian minister 
Lotti (whom Lord Herbert of Cherbury calls i my good 
friend Loty ') wrote from London to the Secretary of 
the Grand-Duke of Tuscany on July 13th 1605 : * The 
Queen (Anne of Denmark) is much put out because 
a married cavalier, Sir Robert Dudley, who they say 
is a natural son of the Earl of Leicester, has last night 
carried off a maid of honor of whom he was enamoured. 
Strict orders were promptly given out, but at present 
we have heard no news. This gentleman is about 
35 years of age, of exquisite stature, with a fair beard, 
and noble appearance. The fact has created great 

(The first and last parts are in cypher.) 2 
On the 20th of July, Signor Lotti again writes: 
ff That Court Lady, niece of the Lord High Admiral, 
who they say ran off with Sir Robert Dudley, himself 
nephew of an Admiral, has been stopped at Gales (Ca- 
lais) by the Governor of that city ; the expedition from 
here arriving almost at the same time as the fugitives. 
But as he found that she had taken this step, not for 
love, but with the object of entering a monastery and 

1 We find from other sources that she dressed as his page. 

2 See Appendix, n. VII. 

50 PART II. 

serving God in the true religion, I do not know whether 
the French will let her be brought back by force ; on 
the contrary it is believed they will allow her to follow 
out her holy inspiration." (Oh ! naughty Elizabeth 
Southwell, to be a week or two later walking about 
the -streets of Lyons in no conventual guise.) 

The King ignored the^ love story, but expressed 
himself disgusted in the extreme at Dudley's secession 
from the Protestant faith. Here Lotti adds in cypher : 
fr The chief reason is that his Majesty does not want 
Catholic subjects, especially when they are brave and 
worthy men. 1 ' 

Having proved himself a free man according to 
his new religion, and perhaps still more according to 
his own desires, Dudley lost no time in legalizing as 
far as possible his union with Elizabeth Southwell. 
He presumed on their position as new converts to 
obtain the Pope dispensation from the laws of con- 
sanguinity, without by the way mentioning the little 
impediment of a wife and four children in England. 
The dispensation given, they were duly married at 
Lyons, in spite of his wife Alice, who wrote to express 
her willingness to turn Roman Catholic and join him, 
bringing her children with her. 

All this is told in a letter from Antonio Standen 
addressed Al molto illustre Sig. Belisario Vint a Cav. di 
San Stefano, mio Sig. osserv. Livorno, and dated Rome, 
January 27th 1607. It speaks also of King James' anger 
against Dudley for his marriage and assumption of the 
title of Earl of Warwick. 2 

1 See Appendix, n. VIII. 
8 See Appendix, n. IX. 


As to this Antonio Standen, there is a letter from 
him to the Grand-Duke of Tuscany : dated Grasinne 
(Gray's Inn or Gravesend ?) ne' borghi di Londra alii 
7 luglio 1595} There is also a notice of Standen, by 
no means flattering, on the page facing the letter. 
It proves him to have been a spy of Queen Elizabeth's, 
living at Florence and professing Catholicism. 

The letter is in the Archivio Mediceo, Filza 4185. 



'UDLEY did not stay long in Lyons. He had a great 
wish to live in Florence, and thither he wended his 
way with Elizabeth as soon as they were married. r 

There is a document from him in the Medicean 
archives, written in French, wherein he craves the 
Grand-Duke's protection, as he wishes to establish him- 
self in Florence, and enter the service of his Serene Ex- 
cellency. He then sets forth his attainments, especially 
in the matter of ship-building and nautical and mil- 
itary command. 1 

The Grand-Duke though pleased with his appear- 
ance, and delighted with his marine talents, neverthe- 
less took every means to obtain information about him 
before giving him the entree to his Court. There is 
a ' minute ' of the Florentine Secretary, to Lotti, Min- 
ister at London, dated March 17th 1607, asking for 
information about Dudley, and protesting that the 

1 See Appendix, n. X. 


Grand-Duke in protecting him has no intention to 
offend the English King, etc. Information was also 
requested from Lyons, and from London by private 
means. The Medicean archives (filza 4185) contain 
several of the relazwm in answer to these enquiries, 
from some of which we have already quoted. There 
is also a rough draft of a letter from the Grand-Duke 
of Tuscany to the Earl of Northampton, March 17th 1607, 
saying : " The Earl of Warwick as your Lordship is 
aware has come to reside in these my dominions that 
he may be able to live a quiet life, according to the 
religion which till now he has always observed. Besides 
the information I have received of his merits and valour, 
I have the more willingly received him, on account of 
his relationship with your illustrious Lordship, and 
knowing from him the love you bear towards him." 
He then says a good word for Dudley's loyalty towards 
King James, to whom he is a fedel vassallo, and begs 
the Earl to act a father's part to Dudley, and maintain 
him in the good grace of his Majesty. 1 

As soon as the Grand-Duke had satisfied himself 
about Dudley's antecedents, at least as much as was 
revealed to him, he took him into his service ; and 
we find that in 1607 Dudley had already begun ship- 
building for the Grand-Duke. Targione (Aggranda- 
mentOy vol. I, pag. 79, etc.) says : rc In the Court Diary 
kept by Cesare Tinghi I find that in 1607 a vessel 
with a square sail, and also oars, was built from the 
designs of the Earl of Warwick, and that a galleon 
also designed by him was launched at Leghorn on 
March 20th 1608, and baptized with the name of San Gio- 

1 See Appendix, n. XI. 


vanni Battista " (St. John Baptist), Apropos of this 
vessel, Dudley, in his Architecture, has the following 
marginal note in Italian, after one of his simetrie or 
mathematical proportions for ship-building : re Of this 
symmetry the Duke made the Galleon St. Giovanni 
Battista for the Grand-Duke Ferdinand. She carried 
64 pezzi grossi (great guns), was a rare and strong 
sailer, of great repute, and the terror of the Turks in 
these seas. Alone and unassisted she captured the 
Captain galleon of the Great Lord (Gran Signore) twice 
her own size and valuing a million. She also, without 
assistance from the others, fought the Grand Turk's 
fleet of 48 Galleys and 2 l Galliazze,' and made the 
Generalissimo Bassia (Bashaw) of the sea in person to 
fly, as she very nearly captured his Galley." 

Dudley was certainly living much at Pisa and Leg- 
horn in the years 1607-1608, where he seems to have 
had constant employment in the arsenal. Lotti writing 
from London March 13th 1607 1 says: " His Excellency 
(Sir Thomas Challoner, tutor of Prince Henry) showed 
me the design for a ship made at Leghorn by the Earl 
of Warwick, and he also showed me another which he 
said was more perfect than any." 

It seems that Dudley wanted to get his old instructor 
in ship-building, Mathew Baker, of the Deptford Docks 
over to Italy to assist in building the Italian Fleet. Here 
is a letter of Signor Lotti from London, May 23rd 1607, 
written all in cypher: 2 " In my last letter of the 16th 
inst. I told your Highness that I had been at Deptford, 
and under pretence of knowing something about ship- 

1 Archivio Mediceo, Filza 4188. 

2 Archivio Mediceo, Filza 4188. Original in Italian. 

56 PAliT III. 

building induced Mathew Caccher 1 to come and spend a 
morning with me in London. I then thought he would 
accept the offer of going over to Italy in the service 
of your Highness. But notwithstanding that he is ill 
satisfied here, and being now old no longer suits the 
heads of the profession, and that he has so little employ- 
ment, that for two years he has not drawn a penny 
of salary knowing also that with you he would have 
good pay, yet he decidedly, though much to his regret, 
excuses himself from coming, solely on account of his 
great age, he being 77 years old, and looking even 
more. He tells me if I will go to Deptford again, he 
will give me the models of some of his ships, hoping 
thus to be useful to your Highness even here. Asking 
me about his pupil Sir Robert Dudley, he expressed 
how willingly he would have taught his profession in 
Italy to oblige him. Then he told me there was a 
young man whom he had instructed, but as yet he 
was unknown, or he would not be allowed to leave 
the kingdom, and he would see if this youth would 
accept service under your Highness. .... We are expect- 
ing the return of that Naval Captain who brought 
orders from Sir Robert Dudley, and will send every 
thing (i. e. the arms bought in England for the Grand- 
Duke) under his care " 

Lotti's letters to the Grand-Duke at this time did 
not much assist Dudley's standing at the Tuscan Court. 
He writes much about a Captain Janvier, one of Dud- 
ley's master mariners probably the one spoken of 

1 A letter to Lotti April 10th 1607 from the Tuscan Court offering 
this man the appointment, at double the salary he received in Eng- 
land, gives the name as Matthew Baker. See Appendix, n. XII, Lotti 
must have misread it. 


above who had promised information about Dudley's 
French marriage, but never seems to turn up to give it. 
There is great mystery about this, but it ends in the 
revelation of the whole story of Dudley's wife left in 
England and the consequent illegality of his present 
marriage ; of the English King calling the Pope to 
account for the dispensation given on false evidence, 
and the Pope's anger thereupon. In fact Lotti takes 
every thing with the English colouring (as did his succes- 
sor Salvetti, the next Italian * resident " in London) 
and puts the very worst construction on it all. 

On February 4th 1608 he writes in cypher : " The 
King of his own accord spoke of Sir Robert Dudley 
and said : i If he had been a traitor to my own person 
and state, I should expect from his Highness the Grand- 
Duke some real sign of friendship ; but as he has only 
erred in lightness and dishonour, I should not wish to 
drive him out of His Serene Highness's state ; yet that 
he should receive Dudley in his house, and honour him 
as he does, seems very strange to me. He (Dudley) 
has a wife and children here, the Pope has annulled 
his marriage to the woman he has with him, 1 and I, for 
my part, hold him incapable of any honorable action.' " 

This comes rather strongly from the King who 
only a few months earlier, October 17th 1607, had sent 
Dudley, so Lotti writes, an order of recall to 
England, with a promise of an Earldom, and the title 
of Earl of Warwick. 2 If he were such a miscreant, 
why did James hold out these inducements for his 
return to England? 

1 The King mistakes here, the Pope did not annul the marriage. 

2 Archivio Mediceo, Filza 4188 (new numeration). Letter from 
Lotti, London, to Cavalier Vinta, Florence. See Appendix, n. XIII. 


The mother of Robert Dudley also figures in this 
same letter, and in another of October 24th. In the 
first Lotti says that the Countess of Stafford often ap- 
plies to him for news of her son ; and in the latter, 
he encloses a letter from her to Dudley, adding this 
mysterious little sentence : " I cannot clearly say, not 
having official notice from the court, but I well un- 
derstand that there are attempts towards a compro- 
mise made by the Viscount de Lisle the Queen's cham- 
berlain, who is the party opposing the pretentious of 
the said Earl of Warwick." 

This compromise was never made. Dudley would 
not accept an Earldom as a compensation for ac- 
knowledging himself illegitimate, and his mother no 
true wife ; and till this slur was taken off he refused 
to return to England. 

Perhaps he realized that a worthy future was opening 
before him in Italy. As a naval man he had at once seen 
the great adaptability of Leghorn as an international 
port, and also opened the Grand-Duke's eyes to its capa- 
bilities. Within a few years Leghorn, thanks to Dudley, 
had risen to importance, and was rapidly becoming a 
great commercial port. 

" I have heard from some living who have visited 
those parts," says Anthony Wood, " that this our author 
Robert Dudley was the chief instrument of causing the 
said Duke not only to fortify it and make it a scala 
franca, that is, a free port, but of setting an English 
factory there, and of drying the fens between that 
and Pisa. At which time also our author induced many 
English merchants that were his friends to go and 
reside there." 

His work at Leghorn is thus referred to by Dudley 


in his Arcano del Mare: Di quivi verso mezzogiorno si 
trova Livorno, il quote e porto di gran consider azione per 
commercio e la spiaggia e luona, ma il Molo e d' inven- 
zione dell' autore, ed e buonissimo porto, e sicuro per navi 
e galere per tutti i venti. On page 136 of the Arcano is 
a plan for the fortifications of the port and mole of 
Leghorn, and on page 138 is another sketch under 
which Dudley has written : ff The scalle of Brace ; each 
Brace 2 English feet " (The scale of Braccie, each 
Braccia, etc.). 

In his ff Military Architecture " we find this plan 
thus mentioned by Dudley : rt The 5th simetrie regular, 
of 7 Bollowards (baluardo large bastion) somewhat 
differing from the former conteyning the situation and 
new Porte of Livorno, as myselfe both invented and 
dessined it for his heyghnes (sic) the great Ducke ; and 
withall shewing how this regular forme would well 
have agread for the fortefiiiig the same Towne and 
Ports, and in my opinion is more perfect than it. 1 ' 

The Italian archives of these three years 1607-1609 
show the great interest the Grand-Duke Ferdinand took 
in Dudley. There are letters from the Tuscan Court 
giving Lotti instructions to try and re-instate Dudley 
in the favour of the King, adding that rc here he is known 
as a worthy knight, and of the utmost goodwill, and 
that he could not possibly entertain any idea of dis- 
loyalty or ill-faith towards King James or his state." 
Again : rt It seems to us that this Knight shows him- 
self every day more worthy of our protection, and 
especially of our efforts to prove in Rome the validity 
of his last marriage. We will therefore that you do 
your best to elucidate the matter in his favor as far 
as you can for truth's sake." 


Lotti, as we have seen, took the English view 
that is the view held by the powerful and interested 
party of Sydney and Essex, and did little on Dudley's 
behalf, so little that in 1608 Dudley asked the Duke 
to legalize his marriage ; his wife also wrote a supplica- 
tion to the Duchess pleading her right on the score 
of the illegality of her husband's former marriages,' 
and the Pope's permission granted for this union with 
herself. "Whatever the Grand-Duke thought of the 
conflicting evidence laid before him, he was politic 
enough to take Dudley's side, and retain a most valuable 
master of the marine ; and when Ferdinand 1st died 
in 1608, Cosimo II who succeeded him remained equally 
Dudley's friend. During this time Dudley's home in 
Florence was in Via dell'Amore, where he was a tenant 
of Cavalier Annibale Orlandini ; and here in 1609, his 
first child by his wife Elizabeth Southwell was born, 
and named Maria, and in 1610, a second child, Cosimo, 
was born. 

About this time Dudley wrote or began to write 
his first book on military and naval Architecture, for he 
always dignifies ship-building by this term. This exists 
in three large half-bound volumes in manuscript, in 
the Specola or Museum of Natural History, Florence, 
where Dudley's nautical and mathematical instruments 
are preserved. The first two volumes treat of the build- 
ing of ships, and were written in English. 

A note, proem to the third volume, which speaks 
of seven sorts of simetries (symmetries), supposed to 
be written by Dudley's master-mariner Abram Kendal, 
says : * As to the art of Architecture, in regard to 

Archivio Mediceo, Filza 4185. 


the above said symmetries, the Duke has written an 
entire volume with figures of many kinds of vessels, 
but it is written in the English language. About the 
fortifications of Ports, and the method of doing so, he 
has also written in English, for at that time, about 1610, 
the Duke did not know enough of the Italian tongue 
to write that volume in the Volgare, but perhaps he 
will do so when he has the leisure. He has also written 
a larger volume than these, on the true and real art 
of navigation, but this was written in England, with 
many curious mathematical and astronomical figures, 
and other things never before seen, such as nautical 
Instruments for the observation of the variations of 
longitude and latitude, and others for the horizontal 
and spiral Navigation, and about the Great Circles. 
Of these, however, common sailors understand little, as 
also about the Marine Management and discipline, and 
about sea fighting and squadrons, which are amply 
treated in these volumes." 

In this rare MS. we find that Dudley heads the 
first part K First Chapter of my Booke touching the 
34 simetries, following : their use and qualleties." It is 
difficult to say whether Dudley's orthography and dic- 
tion were more original in writing English or Italian. 

Here is his heading, several years later, to the third 
volume in Italian: 11 3 2 volume di Vascelli di Guerra 
secondo V inventions di me Duca di Northumbria et della 
mia esperienza per piu di 40 anni. In quote li disegni 
stesso bastano, senza altro discorso lungo. The idiom, be 
it observed, is entirely English, though the words are 

Here is his own account of the second volume: 
* The second volume or Tombe (Tome) of my Worke 


touching Marinarie, and Conteyning 2 Bookes, the 
one of the archetecture of al sorte, and of vessels of 
warre. The other of the fortefiing or ordering of 
Ports, Invented by R. Dudley, Earl of Warwick and 
Leycester sole heyre to John, Ducke of Northumber- 
land. " 

In the fourth page of the second volume the author 
thus praises his favorite 12th simetrie. He had by this 
time got beyond the original seven. 

rt The 12th Simetrie is the reall Thirds, which of all 
proportions is most perfecte for vessels with 2 Deckes, 
being thirdes in lenth and breadth, thirds in Eache (sic). 
third in draught, thirds in flower ; and the proportion 
according to my vessel, is the longest and greatest of 
burthen and force, it is possible to make ; being called 
by me Gattione Perfecta ; and in burthen will be 
neare 1200 tonns. This vessell is of so much force in 
fight eather to offende, as wite cann not adde more 
to the force, and of sayle excellent beyonde all other 
Galleons. She can carie 90 of my Demicanns, 1 which 
sorte of peace is only of greate importance in a sea 
battayle and of so much consequence is this force, as 
the greatest Gallion in Englande carieth not 18 Demi- 
cannons : these vessels are cheafly fitt to be the Royall 
' Gallions Perfecta ' of a great Kinge's settled navie, and 
not be imployed but uppon great occasion to defende 
the State or such like being of so greate charge so 
great a strenth to a state as not fitt otherwise to be 
adventured uppon lesse occasion." 

By which we see that Dudley had supreme faith 

1 Demi-cannons, an invention of Dudley's for use on the Tuscan 


in his own ships, though his enemies sometimes de- 
tracted from their credit. The last volume begins : 

n Haveing written in former times 4 bookes of mari- 
narie, as before mentioned ; I thought it most neces- 
serie to finish this fifth being of so great importance, 
both for strenth of Princes, and saftie of merchante 
goodes as nothing more utill, as by the discourses follow- 
ing will easely by explayned ; especially being a worke 
not hetherto perfected to anie great purpose (more 
than vulgarly knowne) by anie, the curiositie whereof 
made me more paynfully serch into the debth of this 
arte and with good succes have accomplished my 
desiers, and promises by Practes herein, both in the 
time of Don Ferdinando great Ducke of Toscana of 
famos memorie as allso by his worthie sonne Don Co- 
simo now greate Ducke of Toscana, from both of them 
having receaved more favours and obligations then 
I coulde meritt, or necessarie here to be mentioned : 
and therefor not to diverte the reader from the matter, 
I will only secure him that whatsoever is conteyned 
in this worke is different from the orders of all others 
in these Simetries, as well from those in England as 
in these other p ts and not taught me by anie, but 
invented merely (with God's assistance) by the practise, 
experiens, and knowledge it hath pleased his Infinite 
Goodness to imploy in me, and afforde by my Prac- 
tise, contemplations, and studies herein ; and therefor 
doe desier the practise and imploymente thereof - 
may be cheafly for God's service to the suppression 
of all as I intend Infidelitie." 

It is probable that this early and unpublished trea- 
tise was the germ of the future Arcane del Mare. 

In 1610 also, Dudley is named in a privilegio (pa- 


tent) which shows his activity of mind and inventive 
genius. It is thus headed : 

X Ottobre 1610. 

Al Conte Ruberto di Warwick privilegio di nuova in- 
venzione per aumentare la setaS (To Earl Robert of 
Warwick, a patent for a new invention to improve silk.) 
Whether this new invention to improve the quality 
and increase the quantity of silk, as well as improve its 
manufacture and design, has anything to do with that 
branch of industry having continued to flourish in Italy 
till now, one cannot say. It gave him the exclusive 
right of using the invention at Pisa for twenty years. 

1 Archivio Centrale Florence, Class IX, n. IX, stanza 3, armadio XII. 


J_N 1611-1612 Dudley was negotiating for a mar- 
riage between Prince Henry, eldest son of King James 1st 
of England, and a Princess of Tuscany. The negotia- 
tions were conducted partly by Ottaviano Lotti, whose 
despatches we have quoted in the last chapter, and 
by Sir Thomas Challoner, who had been Prince Henry's 
tutor. Dudley had probably suggested the marriage, 
in order to propitiate the English court and to serve 
his patrons the Medici. 1 It may be observed, that the 
youngest sister of Elizabeth Southwell, who married 
Sir Edward Rodney in 1614, was a lady of the privy 
chamber to Anne of Denmark, wife of James 1st of 
England, and may perhaps have advised and assisted 
Dudley in the affair. 

Dudley was at the same time engaged in negotia- 
tions with Prince Henry for the sale to him of the 
great Kenilworth estate. All these aspirations were 

See Appendix, n. XIV. 

66 PART IV. 

doomed to be disappointed by the death of Prince Henry 
in 1612. 

In the Kenilworth affair, as in his law-suit, Dudley 
was treated harshly and unfairly. His estates were 
seized by the Crown, and granted to others, as were 
also the titles of Leicester and of Warwick. The patent 
of King Charles 1st creating Alicia Dudley, born Leigh, 
Duchess Dudley, dated 22nd May 1644, Oxford, 1 bears 
witness to the injustice done at this time to Robert 
Dudley. The said patent was probably drawn up by 
Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st, who was 
son-in-law to Alicia Dudley. 

In spite of his wrongs, Dudley and his wife attended 
the Florentine Court as Earl and Countess of Warwick, 
and indeed took a prominent position there. In 1612 
Dudley appeared as Judge in a Barrier a, or Tilting 
tournament, followed by a Masquerade, held in Florence 
on the 17th and 19th of February 1613. 

The fete is fully described in a book printed by 
Bartolommeo Sermartelli in 1613. For those who would 
like to know how Dudley and the Florentines amused 
themselves we will quote it. 

On February 3rd a grand game of calcio (football) 
on Piazza Santa Croce, which all the Court had attended, 
was followed by a ball at the Palazzo Pitti. The guests 
danced till the third hour of night (about nine o'clock) 
when suddenly was heard in the Palace a great sound 
of drums and trumpets ; and not knowing what this 
portended, every one remained breathless (resto sospeso 
I' animo) when behold, a herald with a great number 
of torch bearers entered the Hall. He was dressed in 

1 See Appendix, n. VI. 


military costume, with a wand in bis hand. His sur- 
coat was of cloth of gold with the arms of Eros and 
a broken thunderbolt beautifully embroidered on it. 
This herald was accompanied by 10 pages carrying 
torches, and richly dressed in white and gold Erme- 
sino 1 with plumed caps of a new and bizarre shape. 
Having entered the room with a proud warlike mien, 
the herald spoke thus : ff The good Knight Fidamante 
and the Knight of Immortal Love, Champions of omnipo- 
tent and insuperable Love, moderator of heaven and 
earth, tamer of the fiercest beasts, have sent me to 
this company of famous heroes, to present a challenge 
which they are ready to support with the lance, and 
with the pen." With these words he threw down 
some papers, which a dwarf, who was with him, pre- 
sented to their Eoyal Highnesses, and the cavaliers, 
and departed. 

The challenge came from Prince Ferdinand De Medici 
and Don Paolo Giordano Orsini, who offered to fight 
any other knights, for the good cause of the wrongs 
of Love, and of Venus, who had come to Florence from 
Cyprus and found themselves neglected. 

The tournament was held on the 17th of February 
in the theatre of the Palazzo Pitti, a room about 
25 yards square, which was ornamented with statues 
and frescoes ; it had a stage and scenery at the end, 
and boxes and raised seats all round. 

The knights fought in the centre. Ten Senators 
were deputed to elect 20 gentlemen as umpires among 
whom Sir Robert Dudley, who was famous in all knightly 

1 A light Persian silk fabric so called from Ormuz, whence it was 
first imported into Europe. 

68 PART IV. 

exercises, was one. Two large boxes were erected at 
opposite ends. The Grand-ducal party were in one 
box, and the umpires in the other, among these were 
Signor Francesco del Monte, General of the Ducal in- 
fantry ; Marchese Pireteo Malvezzi, Master of the horse 
to H. R. H. ; 11 Signor Conte di Veruich (Warwick), 
Englishman ; Signor Conte Giulio, Estense ; Tassone, 
Honorary Secretary ; the Grand-Duke's Secretary ; Don 
Giovanni De Medici ; Pier Capponi, Constable of the 
order of St. Stephen ; and several other cavaliers of 
the same order. 

Then follows a detailed account of the tournament, 
with a description of the knights' dresses, their songs, 
and grand deeds, their fanciful names, and the celestial 
gods and goddesses that appeared to help and to hinder 
the champions as they did in old Homer's days. The 
poems and dialogue were written by Ottavio Rinuccini. 
After the tournament all the actors made a torchlight 
procession through the city. 

On the 16th December 1612 Dudley's fourth child 
was born and the Archduchess Maria Maddalena, after 
whom she was named, was her god-mother. 

This Archduchess was the daughter of the Arch- 
duke Charles II, and wife of Cosimo II Grand-Duke 
of Tuscany. Her being god-mother to the daughter 
of the Dudley's shows how much they were esteemed 
at Court. 

To propitiate King James 1st of England it is said 
that Dudley wrote and sent to him in 1613 the pamph- 
let ' For bridling the impertinence of Parliament.' 
Craik 1 says that Wood gives the title as i A discourse 

1 CKAIK'S Romance of the Peerage, vol. Ill, pag. 133-137. 


to correct the Exorbitances of Parliaments, and to 
enlarge the King's revenue.' 

No great notice of this paper was taken till the 
commencement of the next reign, when, in the year 1629, 
it was suddenly raised into notoriety by an information 
being filed by the Attorney general in the Star Cham- 
ber, against certain individuals for dispersing copies 
of it. The accused individuals were no less distinguished 
persons than the Earls of Bedford, Somerset, and Clare, 
Sir Robert Cotton, the great antiquary and collector, 
John Selden and Oliver St. John, all eminent Parliamen- 
tary leaders of the popular party. They were charged 
with an attempt to make the Government odious by 
pretending that there was a design to adopt the mea- 
sures recommended in the paper, etc. The prosecution 
was stopped by the King's order, on its being disco- 
vered what the paper really was. 

The prosecution had disastrous consequences for Sir 
Robert Cotton, who died 6th May 1613. 

The Biographia Britannica describes Dudley's tract 
' as being in all respects as singular and as dangerous 
a paper as ever fell from the pen of man.' It was 
printed and published by the opponents of the court 
in 1641 immediately after the execution of the Earl 
of Strafford, with a title attributing it to the pen of 
that nobleman : ' Stafford's plot discovered,' etc. 

Horace Walpole, who believed Dudley to have been 
the legitimate son of the great Earl of Leicester, 
observes when speaking of this paper in his ' Royal 
and Noble authors,' that, " considering how enterprising 
and dangerous a minister Dudley might have made, 
and what a variety of talents were called forth by his 
misfortunes, it would seem to have been fortunate both 

70 PART IV. 

for himself and his country, that he was unjustly 
deprived of the honors, to which his birth gave him 

Dudley may have considered it an act of homage 
to the Grand-Duke to recommend his political mea- 
sures in England, for the tract is little more than a 
description of Italian polity after all. We here give 
it entire as proof of this. 


The proposition for your Majesty's service, containeth two 
parts : the one to secure your state, and to bridle the Imper- 
tinency of Parliaments : the other, to increase Your Majesty's 
Revenue, much more than it is. Touching the First, having 
considered divers means, I find none so important to strengthen 
Your Majesty's regal authority, against all Oppositions and 
Practises of troublesome Spirits, and to bridle .them, than to 
fortify your kingdom, by having a Fortress in every Chief Town, 
and important Place thereof, furnished with Ordinance, Muni- 
tion, and faithful Men, as they ought to be, with all other Cir- 
cumstances fit for to be digested in a Business of this Nature ; 
ordering withal, the Trained soldiers of the country to be united 
in one Dependency with the said Fort as well to secure their 
Beginning, as to succour them in any Occasion of Suspect, and 
also to retain and keep their Arms for more Security, whereby 
the Countries are no less to be brought in Subjection, than the 
Cities themselves, and consequently the whole Kingdom, Your 
Majesty having by this Course the Power thereof in your own 
Hands. The Reasons of the Suggests are these: 1st That in 
Policy, there is a greater Tie of the People by Force and Ne- 

1 From the Historical collections of Private Passages of State, etc. 
(1618-1629), by JOHN RUSHWORTH of Lincoln's Inn, Esq. London, 1721 ; vol.1. 
Appendix, pag. 12. 


cessity, than merely by Love and Affection, for by the One, the 
Government resteth always secure ; but by the Other, no longer 
than the People are contented ; 2nd It forceth obstinate Subjects 
to be no more presumptuous, than it pleaseth your Majesty to 
permit them ; 3rd That to leave a State unfurnished, is to give 
the Bridle thereof to the Subjects, when by the contrary, it 
resteth only in the Prince's Hands; 4th That modern Fortresses 
take long Time in winning, with such Charge and Difficulty, as 
no Subjects in these Times have Means probable to attempt 
them ; 5th That it is a sure Remedy against Rebellion, and 
popular Mutinies, or against foreign Powers, because they cannot 
well succeed, when by this Course the apparent means is taken 
away, to force the King and Subject upon a doubtful Fortune 
of a set Battle, as was the Cause, that moved the pretended 
Invasion against the Land, attempted by the King of Spain in 
the Year 1588; 6th That Your Majesty's Government is the more 
secure, by the People's more subjection, and by their Subjection, 
Your Parliament must be forced consequently to alter their Style, 
and to be conformable to Your Will and Pleasure ; for their 
Words and Opposition import nothing, where the Power is in 
Your Majesty's own Hands, to do with them what you please, 
being indeed the chief Purpose of this Discourse, and the secret 
Intent thereof, fit to be concealed from any English at all, either 
Counsellors of State or other. For these, and divers other weighty 
Reasons, it may be considered in this Place, to make Your Majesty 
more powerful and strong, some Orders be observed, that are 
used in fortified Countries, the Government whereof imports 
as much as the States themselves, I mean in Times of Doubt 
or Suspect, which are these ; Imprimis : That none wear Arms 
or Weapons at all, either in City or Country, but such as your 
Majesty may think fit to priviledge, and they to be enrolled ; 
2nd That as many High-ways as conveniently may be done, be 
made passable through those Cities and Towns fortified, to 
constrain the Passengers to travel through them; 3rd That the 
Soldiers of Fortresses be sometimes chosen of another Nation, 
if subject to the same Prince ; but howsoever, not to be born 
in the same Province, or within forty or fifty Miles of the For- 
tress, and not to have Friends or Correspondency near it; 


4th That at all the Gates of each walled Town be appointed 
Officers, not to suffer any unknown Passenger to pass, without 
a Ticket, showing from whence he came, and whither to go. 
And that the Gates of each City be shut all Night, and keys 
kept by the Mayor or Governor ; 5th Also Inn-keepers to deliver 
the Names of all unknown Passengers that lodge in their Houses ; 
and if they stay suspiciously at any Time to present them to 
the Governor. Whereby dangerous Persons seeing these strict 
Courses, will be more wary of their Actions, and thereby mis- 
chievous Attempts will be prevented. All which being referred 
to your Majesty's wise Consideration, it is meet for me withal 
to give you some Satisfaction of the Charge and Time to per- 
form what is purposed, that you may not be discouraged in the 
Difficulty of the one, or Prolongation of the Other ; both which 
Doubts are resolved in one and the same Reason, in respect 
that in England each chief Town commonly hath a ruinated 
Castle, well seated for strength, whose Foundation and stones 
remaining, may be both quickly repaired for this Use, and with 
little Charge and Industry made strong enough, I hope, for this 
Purpose, within the Space of one Year ; by adding withal Bul- 
warks and Rampiers for the Ordnance, according to the Rules 
of Fortification. The Ordnance for these Forts may be of Iron, 
not to disfurnish your Majesty's Navy, or be at a greater Charge 
than is needful. 

To maintain Yearly the Fort, I make account an ordinary 
Pay, three thousand Men will be sufficient, and will require 
Forty thousand Pound charge per Annum, or thereabouts, being 
an Expense that inferior Princes undergo, for their necessary 
Safety. All which prevention added to the invincible Sea-force 
your Majesty hath already and will have, will make you the most 
powerful and obeyed King of the World. Which I could like- 
wise confirm by many Examples, but I omit them for brevity, 
and not to confuse your Majesty with too much matter. Your 
Majesty may find by the Scope of this Discourse, the Means 
shewed in general to bridle your Subjects, that may be either 
discontent or obstinate. So likewise am I to conclude the same 
Intent particularly, against the Perverseness of your Parliament 
as well to suppress that pernicious Humour, as to avoid their 


Oppositions against your Profit, being the second Part to be 
discoursed on : And therefore have first thought fit, for better 
prevention thereof to make known to your Majesty the Purpose 
of a general Oath your Subjects may take for sure avoiding of 
all Rubs, that may hinder the Conclusion of these Businesses. 
It is further meant, That no Subject, upon Pain of High Trea- 
son, may refuse the same Oath, containing only Matter of Al- 
legiance, and not scruples in Points of Conscience, that may 
give Pretence not to be denied. The Effect of the Oath is this, 
That all Your Majesty's Subjects do acknowledge you to be as 
absolute a King and Monarch within your Dominions as is among 
the Christian Princes ; and your Prerogative as great ; Whereby 
you may and shall of yourself, by your Majesty's Proclamation, 
as well as other sovereign Princes doing the like either make 
Laws, or reverse any made, with any other Act, so great a 
Monarch as yourself may do, and that without further consent 
of a Parliament, or need to call them at all in such Cases, 
considering that the Parliament in all matters, excepting Causes 
to be sentenced at the highest Court, ought to be subject unto 
your Majesty's Will, to give the negative or affirmative Conclusion, 
and not be constrained by their Impertinencies to any Incon- 
venience, appertaining to your Majesty's royal Authority, and 
this, notwithstanding any bad Pretence or Custom to the contrary 
in Practise which indeed were fitter to be offered a Prince 
elected, without other Right, than to your Majesty, born suc- 
cessively King of England, Scotland and Ireland, and your Heirs 
for ever ; and so received not only of your subjects, but also of 
the whole World. How necessary the dangerous supremacy of 
Parliaments' Usurpation is to be prevented, the Example of 
Lewis the Eleventh, King of France, doth manifest, who found 
the like Opposition as your Majesty doth, and by his Wisdom 
suppressed it. And, to the Purpose here intended, which is not 
to put down altogether Parliaments and their Authority, being 
in many Cases very necessary and fit, but to abridge them so 
far, as they seek to derogate from your Majesty's regal Authority, 
and Advancement of your Greatness. The caution in offering 
the aforesaid Oath, may require some Policy, for the easier 
Passage at first, either by singular or particular Tractaction, 


74 PART IV. 

and that so near about one Time over the Land, as one Govern- 
ment may not know what the other intendeth, so it may pass 
the easier, by having no Time of Combination or Opposition. 
There is another Means also more certain than this to bring to 
pass the Oath more easily, as also your Profit, and what else 
pretended ; which here I omit for brevity, requiring a long 
Discourse by itself, and have set it down in particular Instruc- 
tions to inform your Majesty. 

The second Part of this Discourse is, touching your Majesty's 
Profit, after your State is secured. Wherein I should observe 
both some reasonable Content to the People, as also consider 
the great Expenses that Princes have now-a-days, more than 
in Times past, to maintain their Greatness, and safety of their 
Subjects, who, if they have not Wit or Will to consider their 
own Interest so much indifferently, your Majesty's Wisdom must 
repair their Defects, and force them to it by compulsion, but 
I hope there shall be no such cause, in Points so reasonable 
to increase your Majesty's Revenue, wherein I set down divers 
Means for your gracious self to make choice of either All or 
Part at your Pleasure, and to put it in execution by such 
Degrees and Cautions, as your great Wisdom shall think fit in 
a Business of this Nature. 

Imprimis : The first Means or Course intended to increase 
your Majesty's Revenues or Profits withal is of greatest Conse- 
quence, and I call it a Decimation, being so termed in Italy, 
where in some Parts it is in Use, importing the Tenth of all 
Subjects' Estates, to be paid as a yearly Rent to their Prince, 
and as well monied men in Towns, as Landed men in the Coun- 
tries, their Value and Estates esteemed justly as it is to the 
true Value, though with Reason ; and this paid yearly in money. 
Which Course applied in England for your Majesty's Service, 
may serve instead of Subsidies, Fifteens, and such like, which 
in this Case are fit to be released, for the Subject's Benefit and 
Content, in recompense of the said Decima, which will yield 
your Majesty more in certainty, than they do casually by Five 
hundred thousand Pounds per annum at the least. Item, That 
when your Majesty hath gotten Money into your Hands by some 
Courses to be set down, it would be a profitable Course to in- 


crease your entrada, 1 to buy out all Estates and Leases upon 
your own Lands in such Sort, as they be made no Losers whereby 
having your Lands free, and renting it out to the true Value, 
as it is most in Use, and not employed as heretofore, at an old 
Kent, and small Fines, you may then rent it out for at least 
four or five Times more Money, than the old Rent comes unto. 
So as if your Majesty's Lands be already but sixty thousand 
Pounds per Ann., by this Course it will be augmented at the 
least Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, and to buy 
out the Tenants Estates will come to a small matter by the 
Course, to make them no Losers considering the Gain they have 
already made upon the Land. And this is the rather to be 
done, and the present Course changed, because it hath been a 
Custom used merely to cousen the King. Item, Whereas most 
Princes do receive the Benefit of Salt in their own Hands, as 
a Matter of great Profit, because they receive it at the lowest 
Price possible, and rent it at double gain yearly, the same Course 
used by your Majesty, were worth at least One hundred and 
fifty thousand Pounds per Annum. It is likewise in other Parts 
that all Weights and Measures of the Land, either in private 
Houses, Shops, or publick Markets, should be viewed to be just, 
and sealed once a Year, paying to the Prince for it, which in 
England, applied to your Majesty, with Order to pay sixpence 
for the Sealing of each said Weight or Measure, would yield 
near Sixty thousand Pounds per Annum. Item, Though all 
Countries pay a Gabella 2 for Transportation of Cloth, and so 
likewise in England ; yet, in Spain, there is Impost upon the 
Wools, which in England is so great a Wealth and Benefit to 
the Sheep-Masters, as they may well pay you five Pounds per 
Cent of the true Value at the Shearing, which I conceive may 
be worth One hundred and forty thousand Pounds per Annum. 
Item, Whereas the Lawyers' Fees and Gains in England be 
excessive, to your Subjects' Prejudice, it were better for your 
Majesty to make Use thereof, and impose on all Causes sentenced 
with the Party, to pay five Pounds per Cent of the true Value 

1 Dudley means Entrata, income. 

2 Gabella, an Italian word for dues of Custom. 

76 PAKT IV. 

that the Cause hath gained him, and for recompense thereof, 
to limit all Lawyers' Fees and Gettings, wherehy the Subject 
shall save more in Fees and Charges, than he giveth to your 
Majesty in the Gabella which I believe may be worth, one year 
with another, Fifty thousand Pounds. Item, Whereas the Inns 
and Victualling houses in England are more chargeable to the 
Travellers, than in other Countries, it were good for your Majesty 
to limit them to certain Ordinaries and raise besides a large 
Imposition, as is used in Tuscany, and other Parts ; that is, a 
Prohibiting all Inns and "Victualling-houses, but such as shall 
pay it ; and to impose upon the Chief Inns and Taverns, to pay 
ten Pounds a year to your Majesty, and the worst five Pounds 
per Annum, and all Ale-houses twenty Shillings per Annum, 
more or less, as they are in Custom. Of all Sorts there are so 
many in England, that this Impost may well yield One hundred 
thousand pounds per Annum to your Majesty. Item, In Tuscany, 
and other Parts, there is a Gabella of all Cattel, or Flesh, and 
Horses sold in Markets, paying three or four per Cent of what 
they are sold for, which by conjecture may be worth in England 
two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, using the like Custom 
upon Fish, and other Victuals (Bread excepted) and for this 
Cause, Flesh and Fish and Victuals in the Markets, to be prised 
and sold by Weight, whereby the Subject saveth more in not 
being cousened, than the Imposition impair eth them. Item : In 
Tuscany is used a Taxation of seven per Cent, upon all Aliena- 
tion of Lands to the true Value. As also seven per Cent upon 
all Dowries, or Marriage-monies. The like, if it be justly used 
in England, were worth at least One hundred thousand Pounds 
per Annum ; with many other Taxations upon Meal, and upon 
all Merchandises in all Towns, as well as Port Towns, which 
here I omit, with divers others, as not fit for England. And 
in satisfaction of the Subject for these Taxes, your Majesty may 
be pleased to release them of Wardships, and to enjoy all their 
Estates at eighteen years old, and in the mean Time, their 
Profits to be preserved for their own Benefit. And also in For- 
feitures of Estate by condemnation, your Majesty may release 
the Subject, as not to take the Forfeiture of their Lands, but 
their Goods, High Treason only excepted; and to allow the 


Counsel of Lawyers in case of Life and Death ; as also not to 
be condemned without two Witnesses, with such like Benefit, 
which importeth much more their Good, then all the Taxations 
named can prejudice them. Item, Some of the former Taxations 
used in Ireland and in Scotland, as may easily be brought about 
by the first Example thereof used in England, may very well 
be made to increase your Revenue there, more than it is by 
Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum. Item, All Offices 
in the Land great and small, in your Majesty's Grant, may be 
granted, with Condition, to pay you a Part Yearly, according 
to the Value. This, in Time, may be worth (as I conceive) One 
hundred thousand Pounds per Annum : Adding also Notaries, 
Attornies, and such like, to pay some Proportion Yearly towards 
it, for being allowed by Your Majesty to practise, and prohibit- 
ing else any to practise in such Places. Item, To reduce your 
Majesty's Household to Board-wages, as most other Princes do, 
reserving some few Tables : this will save Your Majesty Sixty 
thousand Pounds per Annum, and ease greatly the Subject 
besides, both in Carriages and Provision, which is a good Reason, 
that your Majesty in Honour might do it. Item, I know an 
assured course in your Majesty's Navy, which may save at least 
Forty thousand Pounds per Annum, which requiring a whole 
Discourse by itself, I omit ; only promise you to do it, when- 
soever you command. Item, Whereas your Majesty's Laws do 
command the strict keeping of Fasting-days, you may also prohibit 
on those Days to eat Eggs, Cheese and White-meats, but only 
such as are contented to pay Eighteen Pence a Year for the 
Liberty to eat them, and the better Sort Ten Shillings. The 
Employment of this may be for the Defence of the Land, in 
maintaining the Navy, Garrisons, and such like, much after the 
Fashion of a Crusado in Spain, as your Majesty knoweth, being 
first begun there, under the Pretence to defend the Land against 
the Moors. And the same used in England, as aforesaid, may 
very well yield, one Year with another, One hundred thousand 
Pounds, without any disgust to any, because it is at every One's 
Choice to give it or no. Lastly, I have a Course upon the Ca- 
tholicks, and very safe for your Majesty, being with their good- 
liking as it may be wrought, to yield you presently at least 

78 PART IV. 

Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, by raising a certain 
Value upon their Lands, and some other Impositions ; which 
requiring a long Discourse by itself, I will omit it here, set- 
ting it down in my Instructions; It will save your Majesty at 
least One hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, to make it 
Pain of Death, and confiscation of Goods and Lands, for any 
of the. Officiers to cousen you, which now is much to be feared 
they do, or else they could not be so rich ; and herein to allow 
a fourth Part Benefit to them that shall find out the cousenage. 
Here is not meant Officers of State, as the Lord Treasurer, etc., 
being Officers of the Crown. The Sum of all this Account 
amounteth unto Two Millions, or Twenty hundred thousand 
Pounds per Annum. Suppose it to be but One Million and a 
half as assuredly your Majesty may make by these Courses set 
down, yet it is much more than I promised in my Letter, for 
your Majesty's Service. Besides, some Sums of Money in present, 
by the Courses following : Imprimis : By the Prince's marriage, 
to make all the Earls in England Grandees of Spain, and Prin- 
cipi, with such like Priviledges, and to pay Twenty thousand 
Pounds apiece for it ; 2nd As also, if you make them Foeditaries 
of the Towns belonging to their Earldoms, if they will pay for 
it besides, as they do to the King of Spain in the Kingdom of 
Naples. And so likewise Barons, to be made Earls and Peers, 
to pay Nineteen thousand Pounds apiece, I think might yield 
Five hundred thousand Pounds, and oblige them more sure to 
his Majesty ; 3rd To make choice of Two hundred of the rich- 
est Men in England in Estate, that be not Noblemen, and make 
them Titulate, as is used in Naples, and paying for it ; that is, 
a Duke Thirty thousand Pounds ; a Marquess Fifteen thousand 
Pounds : an Earl Ten thousand Pounds, and a Baron or Viscount 
Five thousand Pounds. It is to be understood, that the antient 
Nobility of Barons made Earls, are to precede these as Peers, 
though these be made Marquesses or Dukes ; this may raise a 
Million of Pounds and more unto your Majesty. To make Gen- 
tlemen of low Quality, and Francklins, and rich Farmers, Esquires, 
to precede them, would yield your Majesty also a great sum of 
money in present. I know another Course to yield your Majesty 
at least Three hundred thousand Pounds in Money, which as yet 


the Time serveth not to discover until your Majesty be resolved to 
proceed in some of the former Courses, which till then I omit. 
Other Courses also, that may make present Money, I shall study 
for your Majesty's Service, and, as I find them out, acquaint 
you withal. Lastly, To conclude all these Discourses, by the 
Application of this Course used for your Profit, That it is not 
only the Means to make you the richest King that ever England 
had, but also the Safety augmented thereby to be most secure, 
besides what was shewed in the first Part of this Discourse, I 
mean, by the Occasion of this Taxation, and raising of Monies, 
your Majesty shall have Cause and Means to imploy in all Places 
of the Land so many Officers and Ministers, to be obliged to 
you for their own Good and Interest, as nothing can be attempted 
against your Person, or royal State, over Land, but some of them 
shall in all probability, have Means to find it out, and hinder 
it. Besides, this Course will detect many Discorders and Abuses 
in the publick Government, which were hard to be discovered 
by Men indifferent. To prohibit gorgeous and costly Apparel 
to be worn, but by Persons of good Quality, shall save the 
Gentry of the Kingdom much more Money, than they shall be 
taxed to pay unto your Majesty. Thus withal I take my Leave, 
and kiss your Gracious Hands, desiring Pardon for my Error 
I may commit herein. 

Such was Dudley's advice to King James after a 
few years study of political finance at the Court of 
Tuscany. Fortunately his suggestions did not suit the 
English Government. 

Since Dudley's arrival in Tuscany several changes 
had taken place. The Grand-Duke Ferdinand had died, 
and Cosimo II succeeded him. His wife was Maria Mad- 
dalena, daughter of the Archduke Charles of Austria, 
and she made Dudley her Grand Chamberlain. 

In 1613 also Paolo Vinta, Prime Minister to the 
Grand-Duke, died, and was succeeded by Curzio Pic- 
chena. They both wrote many letters and despatches 

80 PART IV. 

regarding Dudley, to the Grand-Duke's agent Ame- 
rigo Salvetti who succeeded Lotti as Italian resident 
in London. 

On the 6th of April 1614, Dudley bought from Lo- 
dovico and Ferdinando, brothers, sons of Orazio, the son 
of Luigi Rucellai, for the sum of four thousand scudi, 
some house property in the parish of San Pancrazio in 
Florence, where he built for himself a palace. On his 
death in 1649 this passed to his descendants of the 
Dudley and Paleotti families, was sold by them, and 
is now the property of the Bordoni family. The site 
is a wedge shaped piece of ground between the Via 
della Spada, and Via della Yigna Nuova, with the very 
narrow end facing Palazzo Strozzi. The illustration we 
give is from an old water-colour showing in its original 
position the loggia of the opposite Palazzo Corsi-Salviati 
(now belonging to the Marchesa Arconati-Visconti born 
Peyrat), before the Via de' Tornabuoni was enlarged. 
It was removed to the other end, of the front of that 
palace in the year 1864. 

The principal front, consisting of four stories (in- 
cluding the ground floor which was let out for shops) 
with ten windows to each story, looks on Via della 
Vigna Nuova, and measures about one hundred and 
thirty five feet in length. The truncated part of the 
wedge facing the Via degli Strozzi, and on which 
appear the Rucellai arms and a little tabernacle, is 
only about six feet wide. It has been said that Bar- 
tolommeo Ammannati was the architect, but dates 
render that doubtful. It is more probable that Dudley 
himself designed or directed the building of the palace. 
It was his town house till his death in 1649 ; there 
eight of his children were born, and there his loving 




and beloved wife Elizabeth Southwell died on Septem- 
ber 10th 1631. 1 

In 1614 Lord Herbert of Cherbury was entertained 
by the Dudleys in Florence, as may be seen in his own 
account of the visit mentioned in the preface to this 
Memoir. In Lord Herbert's relation there is an evident 
mistake as to dates. He speaks of Dudley as having 
the title of Earl and Duke of Northumberland given 
to him by the Emperor. It is matter of notoriety that 
Dudley was not made Duke of Northumberland by the 
Emperor Ferdinand II before the year 1620. Lord 
Herbert also mentions, not very respectfully, K the hand- 
some Mrs Sudel, whom he (Dudley) carried away with 
him out of England, and was there (in Florence) taken 
for his wife." 

1 In n. XV of the Appendix to this Memoir, there is an account 
of the purchase and sale, and a description of the palace and its suc- 
cessive owners. 




'OMESTIC events did not entirely absorb Dudley's 
niind at this time. He was much occupied at Pisa and 
Leghorn, in the building of ships, and in new inventions 
for their more speedy locomotion. He had enemies also, 
probably some Italian ship-builders or merchants who, 
jealous of his success, tried to throw discredit on his 
vessels, one of which had been named St. Cosimo after 
the Grand-Duke. 

We will give a free translation of a postscript to a 
letter written by Dudley to Cav. Sciolli (or Cioli), Grand- 
Ducal Secretary, on March 31st, 1618. 

ff Since writing the above, I have received your 
Excellency's letters and doubt not that they 1 will write 
even more and worse things about the new galley, for 
I know their intentions. I am ready to assert in their 
presence that the new galley floats as well, and is 

1 The pronoun ' they ' here is not explained, the persons referred 
to being evidently known to Cioli. See Appendix, n. XVI. 

84 PAKT V. 

swifter than the St. Cosimo, but that if they want it to 
answer the helm, they should not over-weight it with 
more stones or sand, than they put in the other boats. 
I do not believe that they do this from ignorance, it 
being a common and well-known fact that too much 
weight puts a vessel too deep in water. When a boat 
is once proved to float well, and answer the helm, it does 
not lose the qualities, therefore they must account for it 
in this case. And further I reply, that even if it were 
true that it sinks so deep as to impede its speed, I 
certify his Eoyal Highness that in two days I would 
remedy the defect by a stratagem of my own, which 
has never been revealed. Of this you may be quite 
sure. As to what Madame says of the St. Cosimo, 
though it is my own building, I say with truth it 
is the very best work, and her ship-masters could 
not do better than imitate it. Yet even that at- 
tracted such jealousy and hindrance, that it was kept 
on the stocks two years before it could be brought 
to perfection; so we must have patience also with this 
new one, and let the envy and ill-feeling work off a 
little, till people better recognize the quality of the 
ship. I who know both one and the other, arid have 
seen them both tried, assure you that if the St. Co- 
simo is good, this one will never be bad. True, the 
St. Cosimo has this advantage I watched over the 
building of it till the hull was perfectly finished, while 
for this I merely gave the design, and only inspected 
the work when it was ready for trial. 1 ' 

He goes on at length to explain the causes of this 
envy which existed in nautical quarters, and says it is 
only through spite, that the ship was over-laden with 
stones, and left behind at Marseilles. This enmity and 


opposition had little effect on Dudley's career as a ship- 
builder, for on May 10th 1618, he wrote to the Grand- 
Duke through Cioli that he had been detained so long 
at Pisa to overlook the building of a new ship de- 
signed by him : " You may tell his Serene Highness, my 
Signore, from me, that the vessel will in my opinion 
be all that I wished it to be. I have also thought 
of a rt curiosity " in the matter of a new form of oars, 
which row with more force and yet facility. I hope 
these will prove a great success. I have sent oars 
of the kind to be tried on a galleon at Leghorn 
and they write me word that they succeed very well. 
Before returning to Florence I shall go down to Leg- 
horn and see the effect, and also inspect the Sassaja 
and Petacda as lately commanded by his Serene High- 
ness. I beg you also to thank his Serene Highness 
for the letter written by him in favor of my cause at 
Rome to Monsignor Torelli, Deputy Judge, who has 
given the sentence in my favor, as I desired, and which 
is of great importance to me." 

Regarding the Sassaja and Petacda which were 
in 1617 placed under Dudley's hands for repair, we 
have an interesting letter to Cioli from Cosimo da 
Castiglione, a sea Captain,, showing how those vessels 
became damaged in a fight with the Spaniards. 

It seems that as the Petacda and Sassaja were 
ready to sail for Elba, twenty Englishmen from Dup- 
par's ships, 2 under a renegade Fleming named Rhys, 

1 It does not seem that this cause at Rome had anything to do 
with the later one in the Curia Apostolica, which was in 1627. See 
Appendix, n. XVII. 

2 This famous Duppar had orders from the King of England to 
make reprisals on the Spanish vessels, which orders were renewed 
in 1626. He had however no right to board the Duke of Tuscany's ships. 

80 PART V. 

boarded the Grand-Duke's vessel, the Petacda. The 
Captain flew to the helm and put his men on guard, 
but the assailants threw several of them into the hold, 
and disabled others. Then cutting off three anchors 
and setting sail, they tried to escape with the ship, but 
in so doing they collided with the Sassaja and ran 

By this time the harbour, and the fortress of the 
port were aroused, soldiers and guards were despatched, 
and a general melee ensued, resulting in Rhys being 
captured with 47 of his men, who were thrown into 
the prison at Leghorn to await the Grand-Duke's 

In another letter dated from Leghorn May 20th 1618, 
Dudley reports on the two new galley ships he has 
built at Leghorn, and of the success of his own new 
oars, which the comite (crew) and the galley slaves 
find a great improvement, as they are less fatiguing 
to use, and make more way; they also economise in 
the expense of tow or rope (stroppi) which in the 
course of a year mounts up to 600 scudi. " In fact," 
he says, rr the comite and galley slaves, who are the 
best judges of the mysteries of the art of rowing, 
oppose no difficulties of any kind, but I have given 
orders that the trial be fairly continued all this year, 
to make sure of it before I put the plan into execution 
for the vessel I have in the docks at Pisa, which is not 
far enough advanced to permit my return to Florence 
to attend to other business of His Serene Highness. 1 
I pray your Excellency to procure me from H. S. H. the 

1 Archivio Mediceo, Filza 1376 (new numeration). See Appendix, 
n. XVIII. 


favour of the loan of one of his carriages for the 
journey thither, which if graciously conceded, I desire 
may be sent to Pisa on Saturday evening next, the 
26th inst." 

The Grand-Duke must have sent his carriage, for on 
the 30th of the same month of May, Dudley writes to 
excuse himself for having kept the carriage which he 
spells caroce instead of ' carrozza,' so long. He says 
he has been ill of a fever arising from a cut by some 
instrument, and the doctor would not hear of his tra- 
velling. This fever he cured with a wonderful powder 
of his own invention. As we shall see below, he had 
medical proclivities, and his Will reveals the fact that 
he kept a private medicine chest, which he calls his 

This trait in the versatility of Dudley's tastes is 
curiously shown in a medical book written in 1620 by 
Marco Cornacchini, Professor of medicine at Pisa, and 
dedicated ad Illustrissimum D. Robertum Dudleum comitem 
de WARVICH. The whole book sings the praises of, 
and gives the method for using, a certain curative 
powder invented by Dudley, which, according to Cor- 
nacchini's title page, seems to cure everything. It runs 
Methodus qua omnes humani corporis affectiones ab Jiumo- 
ribus copia, etc., tuto, cito et jucunde curantur. We are 
told that when Dudley himself was ill of that fever 
we have mentioned on his way from Pisa, he put it 
to flight by means of this powder alone, and also 
that he cured his " most illustrious spouse " of a fever 
in the same way. Then Cornacchini runs over a list 
of grand ecclesiastics, gallant knights, and sober citi- 
zens who have been healed of their various mortal 
diseases by this potent panacea. After this he gives 


various methods of administering this powder in dif- 
ferent doses and different times, for the various com- 

It seems to have been composed among other 
ingredients of Antimony, Scammony, and Cream of 
Tartar. From this we see that Robert Dudley the se- 
cond had the same taste for medicaments as his father 
Robert Dudley the first, but that he used his recipes 
for life and not for death. In the Italian dispensaries 
this powder is sometimes called Pulvis Comitis War- 
vicencis, sometimes Cornacenni Pulvis. 

The enthusiastic Cornacchini in his dedication tells 
Dudley he possesses the one kind of true nobility, that 
of glorious deeds, and that his clearing the Italian 
seas of barbarous and evil pirates was not a greater 
benefit to mankind than his fighting and exterminating 
the evil humours which molest humanity and cause 

That Dudley was also devoted to the exact sciences 
as well as the learned ones we gather from his works. 

Targioni 1 says " he rendered himself famous for his 
mathematical genius" and in a letter from Salvetti, 
dated September 1624, he mentions that "he has sent 
by Braccio an English friend of Dudley's (probably 
Tracy) a quantity of instruments for perspective; and 
that he will forward the rest as soon as he finds an 
opportunity." As we have said, 2 the Gabinetto di Fisica 
in the Florentine Museum contains several nautical 
instruments invented by Dudley. 

1 TARGIONI, Aggrandimenti, vol. I, pag. 79. 

2 See pag. 39-41. 



KOM this time the Dudley documents in the Italian 
archives are full of letters from Amerigo Salvetti, who 
had succeeded Lord Herbert's " good friend Loty " as 
Italian resident in London. They contain frequent 
mentions of Dudley, who was by no means forgotten 
in England. 

On the 6th of September 1618, Salvetti writes to 
Picchena that Viscount de Lisle had been made Earl 
of Leicester, to the prejudice of this Earl of Warwick 
(meaning Dudley) ; 1 adding that Baron Eiche, who at 
the same time had been made Earl of Clare, finding 
that Clare had been a Royal title, had petitioned to 
have it changed to Earl of Warwick, and that orders 
had been given to make out the patent, with the said 
change. He regrets that Dudley has no one to take 

1 See Appendix, n. XIX. 


90 PART VI. 

his affairs in hand for him in England, where he is 
at a disadvantage. 

This granting of the titles of Leicester and Warwick 
was naturally felt and resented by Dudley as a personal 
affront and injury. His state of mind may be exem- 
plified by the three following anagrams composed by 
him: 1. Robertus Dudleus Trude sed sublevor. 2. Detrudes 
suUevor. 3. Re delusus deturbo? The last anagram re- 
lates probably to his intended reprisals against the 
English skippers and merchants at Leghorn, and must 
have been a later one. 

On the 16th November 1618, Salvetti writing to 
Sig. Picchena, the Grand-Duke's Minister, names a cer- 
tain Doctor Dempster whose attitude towards Eobert 
Dudley does not seem to be quite loyal. Salvetti writes, 
on November 9th, that " he has not seen Doctor Demp- 
ster for some time, but he hears from the merchant Bur- 
lamacchi, that Dempster wanted to borrow money from 
him, that he might return to the service of the Grand- 
Duke. As he had no order, the money was not lent 
to him. He had before this tried in vain to obtain a 
loan from Sig. Gaetani." Again on November 16th: 
K Dr. Dempster is in this city (London), but whether on 
account of its great size or that he does not choose to 
show himself, I can neither obtain a sight of him, nor 
learn where he is to be found. Sig. Gaetani has seen 
him, and he says he should not leave England till he 
had drawn a certain L. 300 sterling for which he said 
he had the order from the King." 

On the 23rd he says: " Dr. Dempster must be with 
you by this time, for I hear that he left London last 

1 See the genealogical (Dudley) trees in the ' Uffizio della Nobilta 
e Cittadinanza ' Firenze. 


week for the sea, without saying a word of adieu to 
any one, having first drawn 200 scudi of the L. 300 on 
his Majesty's order." From another letter it appears 
that Dempster spoke strongly against Dudley, his birth 
and titles etc. In it, Salvetti having given a full account 
of Dudley's family from his grand-father John Dudley, 
who died on the scaffold, to his own life and vicissi- 
tudes (in which however he makes some mistakes), adds: 
" This is all the information I can give you, for I cannot 
furnish spurious news as does Dr. Dempster, who more 
often speaks to satisfy his own passions, rather than to 
assert the facts of the case." 

Doctor Dempster was the author of Etruria Re- 
galis (of which there is a copy in the Palatine li- 
brary Florence), published at the expense of Mr. Coke. 
Dr. Dempster may have been envious of Dudley's ac- 
complishments, and of his great favor at the court of 
Tuscany, which was indeed very high. 

Dudley in 1619 was Grand Chamberlain to Maria 
Maddalena, sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II, who 
was then Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, having been mar- 
ried in 1608 to Cosimo II. 1 She was, together with 
Christina of Lorraine, widow of the Grand-Duke 
Ferdinand 1st (who died in 1608), joint regent of Tus- 
cany, during the minority of her son Ferdinand II, 
who lived till 1670. 2 

In 1620 the Duchess Regent Maria Maddalena used 
her influence with her brother the Emperor, on her 
Grand Chamberlain's behalf, and obtained for him a 
patent giving the title of Duke of Northumberland to 

1 Cosimo died in 1621 aged about 31. 

2 Maria Maddalena of Austria died in 1631. Christina of Lorraine 
died in 1637. 

92 PART VI. 

him and his heirs male. The heading of the diploma 
which is dated March 9th 1620, declares that Robert 
Dudley denounces the English Duke of Northumber- 
land, because he has himself been endowed with the 
title by Frederick Emperor of Bohemia. 1 The tak- 
ing of this title was a defiant answer to the new 
creations of the Earldoms of Leicester and Warwick 
in England before referred to. He went further: he 
took Sig. Salvetti's hint about the disadvantages of hav- 
ing no agent in England, and in September 1620 he 
placed his affairs there in Salvetti's own hand. 

An Italian letter of September 3rd 1620 from the lat- 
ter runs thus : " I have received a letter from the Earl of 
Warwick in which he prays me to undertake, together 
with an English gentleman the management of his 
affairs in this Kingdom. He has procured an authentic 
mandate, but as I have no kind of instructions from 
your Excellency, I cannot decide without the express 
command of my most Serene Sovereign, to mix myself 
in other people's affairs, especially affairs of such a na- 
ture as these, in which one would daily be obliged to 
treat with persons of State. This I should not dare to 
do, without authority from head quarters nor could 
I hope by so doing to serve your Highness's interests. 
But if the Earl in his procura will nominate me as agent 
by appointment of his Serene Highness, not only will 
I serve him, but will show more diligence than I have 
even before shown. I supplicate your Excellency to 
inform me of the wishes of my Serene Lord, which I 
shall always observe." 5 

The Grand-Duke lost no time in sending his man- 

1 See Appendix, n. XX, for the diploma in full. 

2 See Appendix, n. XXI. 


date to his London agent, and Salvetti writes to Pic- 
chena on October 29th 1620, to say he will do his best 
to serve the Earl, though he wonders at the strange 
humor which causes him to style himself Duke of 
Northumberland, a whim which very much militates 
against his chances of success in England. He adds : 
" I have not heard whether his Majesty has yet been 
informed of this, but any way I seem to see him 
hurling his thunder-bolts" (mi par di vederlo ftdminare). 
Again on August 6th 1621, Salvetti repeats that he is 
sorry this vanitd (ambition) for new titles so misleads 
Dudley that he loses the real for the unreal. 

There is a letter from Salvetti to Picchena, as to 
quel titolo tanto vano di Duca, etc. which, however, he 
has officially notified to Signor Cav. Calvardi (Calvert), 
Secretary of State. The letter also treats of Dudley's 

He indeed had a plurality of uncertain titles. In a 
letter dated November 4th 1622, Salvetti writes : "The 
enclosed letter for the Earl of Warwick is from Mr. Trasi 
(Tracy) and I beg your Excellency to inform me on 
a point I am desirous to know, whether in your court, 
he takes the name of Duke Dudley, as he has for these 
last few months signed himself here." 

Salvetti's agency appears of slight aid to Dudley, 
for his letters do nothing but complain year after year 
of the difficult task imposed on him. 

As Sig. Lotti had done before him, Sig. Salvetti now 
took his view of the matter from the English side ; and, 
as we know, Alice Leigh and her powerful friends with 
the English court at their backs, had wrested all rights 
from him, and he got neither recognition nor com- 

94 PART VI. 

At length irritated to the extreme by the con- 
tinuance year after year of this persecution, and the 
harsh measures taken against him, Dudley had recourse 
to a very strong measure. He applied to the Curia Ec- 
desiastica of Florence for a decree to enable him to 
make reprisals against the English who frequented the 
port of Leghorn, and owned mercantile houses there ; 
hoping in this way to repay himself what he considered 
as the debt of the King of England towards him. 

A letter from Dudley in Italian to Cav. Sciolli (Cioli) 
is preserved in the Medici archives dated 

" From my house, January 2nd 1627. 


" Seeing no hope from England of my affairs being 
settled, even though so often through your kindness re- 
commended to the King by his Serene Highness, we 
must now come to the last remedy to obtain justice, 
which as His Highness denies it to none, he may the 
more readily concede to me." Then follows a veiled 
explanation of what he demands, and an assurance that 
if Cioli helps him to succeed, he (Cioli) may be sure of 
a gift of 400 ducats for himself. Moreover Sir Robert 
Dudley's wife will send a handsome present to Madame 
Cioli ff as soon as His Highness has consented to the 
restitution demanded." Another letter is dated Pisa 
March 23rd 1627, and contains the following passage. 
(We must give it in the original of which please ob- 
serve the style and spelling ; Dudley had not mastered 
the Italian ]anguage yet.) 

ff Importa assai haver questo bon essempio delle re- 
presalio concessa ed eseguito in Livorno contro li Mar- 


cellesi soditi del Re di Francia, Principe molto poten- 
tiore et utile per la Toscana che Inglitarra puo esser." 1 
The letter shows his still firm intention to get permission 
to make reprisals on the English shipping and the 
English merchants frequenting Leghorn, in order thus 
to recover the value of his estates in England, which 
had been confiscated by the Crown. Cioli was one of 
the confidential advisers of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, 
but he did not agree to this proposition ; consequently 
Dudley applied to the Ecclesiastical Court of Florence 
and actually obtained a sentence in his favor. It ap- 
pears however that the sentence was not carried into 
effect, and that no reprisals were made. 2 

Salvetti writes from London on October 2nd 1626 : 
K There are rumours whispered of some sentence I don't 
know what, which that Robert Dudley, or Duke as he 
calls himself, has procured from the Ecclesiastical Fo- 
rum, declaring himself creditor of this Kingdom for 
L. 200,000. I hope this is not true, or it will prevent 
merchants from putting into port at Leghorn with 
their ships and effects, etc." 

It is certain that the Grand-Duke perceived the ri- 
diculous aspect of this affair, and assured Salvetti in 
London that " the English merchants of that city need 
fear no surprises." But the Duke of Northumberland, 
deceived by the flatteries of the Ecclesiastics, rather 
than desist from his vain emprise, transferred the cause 
to Rome, before the Auditors della Camera Apostolica, 
which, confirming the sentence of the Florentine Curia, 

1 See Appendix, n. XXII. The English at this time did a good 
deal of sea skirmishing against foreign ships. 

2 For this extraordinary sentence see Appendix, n. XXIII. 

3 See Appendix, n. XXIY. 

96 PART VI. 

published an esecutive mandate that the state of Tus- 
cany should proceed to reprisals. 

Here is a translation of the announcement sent to 
Florence of that extraordinary decree of the Eccle- 
siastical Curia dated November 17th 1627. 1 

" This letter of Gregorius Navo, Auditor general of the 
Camera Apostolica, commands by the same the Grand- 
Duke Ferdinand and all the other Ministers of Justice 
under pain of 1000 gold ducats, that they shall confiscate, 
and sell all or any of the goods of English Parliamen- 
tarians and the English residents, in solidum, excepting 
only professed Catholics ; to the end that they may give 
and re-pay to Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 
son of another Eobert Dudley ; to Cosimo Dudley, Earl of 
Warwick, his son ; and to Elisabeth Sathuella (Elizabeth 
Southwell), wife of the above-said Robert, and to all 
other children which are, or shall be born to the above 
coniugi, eight millions of Pounds sterling; with other 
two hundred thousand pounds as interest for the same, 
by reason of the unfair occupation and confiscation made 
of the above-named Dukedom; and this according to 
the sentence promulgated by Pietro Niccolini, Vicar 
general of the Archbishop of Florence, and confirmed 
by the before mentioned Gregorius Navo." The sen- 
tence, a long Latin decree, was, says Galluzzi, 2 affixed 
to the doors of the Duomo. 

So much was the Grand-Duke irritated by the in- 
solence of the Roman Curia and by Dudley's resort to 
it, that the latter would have suffered the penalty of 
his temerity, had not consideration of his services to 

1 R. Arcliivi del Bigallo - Archivio diplomatico. 

2 Storia del G-randucato cli Toscana, di RIGUCCIO GALLUZZI, vol. Ill, 
pag. 155. 


the Medici family served to moderate the Grand-Duke's 
indignation. He also owed much, on this occasion, to 
the intervention in his favour of the Grand-Duchess 

Galluzzi says that the insolence and aggressiveness of 
the Curie were partly caused by the excessive number 
of monks that inundated the state, and to whom Ma- 
dame Christina's inconsiderate piety gave undue in- 
fluence. Fortunately in this case her own influence 
was used to remedy the mistakes of her clerical allies. 

Not daunted even in this last failure of his desire 
for revenge, Dudley returned once more to his efforts 
to obtain justice through Salvetti, who had before 
proved but a broken reed. 

This time however he made his wife, the Duchess 
of Northumberland, the acting party. She sent in an 
official claim for the money due to her husband on 
the sale of Kenilworth to Prince Henry, which, his 
death intervening, had never been paid. 

Salvetti wrote many letters in the end of 1630 and 
the early part of the year 163 1, 1 alluding to the negozio 
of the Signora Duchessa, which as being in its nature, 
an w old and much worn subject," will be extremely 
difficult to revive, and he regrets he cannot rr console " 
her with any hopes of success. 

As early as September 1630 he thanks the Duchess 
through Cioli for sending him money for his expenses 
in the case; and on November 22nd 1630, he says: 
" "With the enclosed I give the Duchess of Northumber- 
land an account of her negozio, which I fear will be 
little to her taste, as it becomes every day more dif- 

1 See Appendix, n. XXV. 


98 PART VI. 

ficult. Treating as it does of extorting from the Royal 
Exchequer the sum of 12,000 scudi which her Grace 
claims, I confess I have not the courage to demand it, 
knowing the straitness of means in these parts. Besides, 
the debt is no longer legal as the Duke is in a continued 
state of contumacy, and now has no friend at Court, 
like the Maggiordomo? I have but the faintest hopes 
of coming out of it with honour, nevertheless I will 
not abandon the negotiations as far as my faithful 
service can go, etc." The death of the Duchess, 
in 163 1, 2 did not stop Salvetti's efforts. His diplomacy 
must have succeeded in spite of his repeatedly bemoan- 
ing its being so scdbbroso, for on July 30th 1632 he 
sends four official papers for Dudley to sign and return 
to him, and on August 26th 1633 writes jubilantly : 
"Sig. Guadagni will pay the Duke of Northumber- 
land 8000 scudi for which I have this day sent him the 
order. I beg that I may have a receipt in full, and I 
am very happy to have succeeded well in these in- 
tricate negotiations and to have done something to 
serve your Excellency." ' 

That the Grand-Duke was pecuniarily interested in 
the success of this claim (probably he had advanced 
money to Dudley on the strength of it) we gather 
from his letter to. Salvetti in September 1632: "We 
have heard with pleasure that your negotiations on 
behalf of the Duke of Northumberland have succeeded, 

1 The Maggiordomo was the Earl of Pembroke, always Dudley's 
friend. Salvetti writes through Mr. Tracy to inform the Duchess of 
Northumberland of his sudden death on April 26th 1630. His son died 
in Dudley's house in Florence in 1635. 

2 See Appendix, n. XXVI. 

3 See Appendix, n. XXVI11. 


so that you hope soon to consign the money which 
will serve to re-imborse ourselves etc." 1 

There was a little self-interest too in Salvetti's 
activity in this case, which was certainly not undertaken 
for the love of Dudley. He lets this out in a letter to 
Cioli dated January 2nd 1632, where he says that if 
the Duke of Northumberland wishes to recompense him 
for all he is doing, he might do so by using his in- 
fluence at the Tuscan Court to get him (Salvetti) recalled 
from exile, he being now 60 years old, and longing to 
go back to his native land after so many years absence. 
He did not however obtain his wish; whether from Dud- 
ley's want of diplomacy, or the Grand-Duke's reluctance 
to ask favours of the Republic of Lucca, who had 
exiled Salvetti, does not appear. 

See Appendix, n. XXVII. 


URING all this stormy time Robert Dudley's fam- 
ily circle in the Florentine home was ever widening. 
In 1620 an eighth child was born, and by 1631 the 
olive branches round his table were increased to twelve. 

Their maintenance seems to have caused some 
anxiety to Dudley, who was a proud and careful 
father, and very fond of his children, except in the 
one sad instance of the unmanageable Carlo. Several 
of his notes reveal that the cost of their education 
and maintenance in Court offices was a serious weight 
on his finances, at least until his cause in England 
had been gained. 

As a proof of this I give a translation of part of 
a letter written by Dudley to Cioli, during his more 
straightened days. 

It seems that the Cardinal had gone to Rome, and 
taken the young Ambrogio as his page. K If I had 
known I would have begged him not to do so, es- 
pecially as my daughter Donna Teresa shows the in- 

102 PART VII. 

tention of taking the veil, and I do not know if it 
can be done with moderate decorum, even with all I 
possess. Some one must have arranged all this without 
my knowledge, for I am not accustomed to offer things 
beyond my power. My income, thanks to the grace 
of His Serene Highness, is about 157 scudi a month. 
From this I pay more than 50 scudi every month for 
my son Don Carlo, and give Don Ambrogio 40 scudi 
a month, besides 17 to his tutor ; think then what 
remains to keep a Duke of Northumberland with three 
boys besides, and moreover a daughter who wants 
to take the veil. Then there is the expense of dress- 
ing Don Ambrogio for Court, and you know it costs 
a hundred scudi to buy a new suit of a style worthy 
the high service of so eminent a prince. Then there 
is the great expense of a tutor to look after him, 
otherwise such an inexperienced youth would spend his 
month's allowance in a day. Were the case different, 
I should be ashamed to ask anything of you, but I 
have no land or private income, and scarcely means 
enough to put my daughter into a convent, and this 
I can assure the Rev. Cardinal and your Excellency. 
Therefore I throw myself on the kindness of the Car- 
dinal, assuring him that the good will to serve him is 
not wanting on my side." 

In spite of poverty and expenses, Dudley managed 
to keep up his rank and importance. In 1630 Pope 
Urban VIII (Barberini) by a Bolla (Bull) created Dudley 
a Patrizio Romano, and gave him the power to form an 
order of knighthood. This Bull according to Wood was 
inserted in the Ceremoniale di Eoma for the year 1630. 

See Appendix, n. XLI. 



A manuscript book entitled Habiti delli Duchi et 
Principi dell' ordine Cesareo armati secondo I' inventione 


del Signor Duca di Nortumlria, contains the rules of 
the order. In it there is a little full-length water 
colour drawing of the master of the order, armed, 



robed, and crowned, which is probably a portrait of 
, _ Dudley himself. There is 

also an extremely rare 
portrait, engraved by 
Pierre Daret, of "Don Co- 
simus Dudleus Nortum- 
brise Princeps, Comes 
Warwichi, Films, et heres 
Roberti Ducis Nortum- 
brise. A. D. 1625, setatis 
sua3 15." Both these por- 
traits are reproduced in 
this Memoir. 

Dudley ruled that his 
order of nobility should 
contain 72 members, who 
were to be elected solely 
' for their great military 
merit and bravery. The 
Emperor was to be Grand 
Master in perpetuo. Thus 
the order was named 
L' or dine Cesar eo armati 
(Imperial military order). 
The first rank were call- 
ed Princes, the second 
Dukes, the third Cava- 
liers. The Princes had 
12 cavaliers under them 
with decurioni, and in 
their service were 300 foot 

THE BADGE OP THE CESAREAN ORDER. , -, . 1 t /% rv 1 

soldiers and 100 horse- 
men. The badge of the order was a white enamelled 


collar bearing alternated three signs : - - The double 
headed Eagles of the Emperor, the cross, mounted on 
the world, and the crossed sceptres, with Charles V's 
motto " nil ultra." 

In the MS. of the Jiabiti delli Duchi et Principi del- 
I' ordine Cesareo etc., we find that the Princes and Dukes 
wore ducal coronets, red velvet gowns, and cloaks of 
the same lined with ermine. The inferior officials had 
their cloaks and dress of less costly crimson, lined with 
tufted stuff. They wore a chain and cross instead of 
the badge, and carried no sword. 

The cavaliere centurione wore the same red cloak, 
but under it a steel cuirass, greaves, and mailed gloves. 
His helmet had red plumes. Whether this order was 
ever really instituted, or how long it existed, there is 
nothing in the archives to show. 

In 1629 came the first break in Dudley's large 
family circle. Young Donna Anna died at the early 
age of 18 years. 

This young girl was buried in San Pancrazio, and 
Richa (Delle CUese, vol. Ill, pag. 324) has preserved her 
epitaph which is now lost. 

D. 0. M. 











106 PART VII. 



The Dudley joys and sorrows were closely mingled. 
The following year 1630, the first wedding in the 
family took place. A marriage was arranged, probably 
through the Grand-Duchess, between the Prince of Piom- 

1 The author of the Italian Biography has thus translated the in- 
scription : 




He says the triplet at the end defies translation, either as a piece 
of Latin, or an inscriptional statement. In answer to this declaration 
I venture to offer the following prose version : 

Learn, fear, what then traveller ? 

Beauty, grace, virtue where are they now ? 

A Northumbrian virgin Princess Anna has concealed them 

with herself beneath this stone. 

Among the "Verba barbara" in the Calepino Lexicon there appears 
Charis (xP^) festi vitas gratia beneficum, and so I have taken it. See 
Septem Linguarum Galepinm, etc. Patavii, Typis Seminarii, MDCCLII, 
apud Joannem Manfre. Superiorum permissu et privilegio. 


bino and Donna Maria Dudley, Princess of Northumber- 
land, daughter of Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumber- 
land which is thus announced : 

Di 3 Novembre 1630 si pubbrib denuntiando il matrimonio da 
contrare tra gl' Illmi et Ecc.mi Sig. D. Orazio Appiano Aragona, 
Principe di Piombino, da una parte ; e Donna Maria Dodlea Princi- 
pessa di Nortumbria, Figlia dell' Sig. D. Roberto Duca di Nor- 
thumbria etc. 

This was certainly a good match for the young 
lady, whose dote (marriage portion) cannot have been a 
large one. Litta tells us the Appiani were Lords of Pisa 
from 1392 to 1399, and Lords of Piombino from 1399 
to 1635. Orazio was the last of the Appiani ruling in 
Piombino. The principality had been disputed since 
the death of Cosimo Jacopo in 1603. 1 At length it 
was judged that Orazio was the only one of the family 
with any plausible right to it, and he was invested 
by the King of Spain on January 5th 1626. It was 
however decreed that he should pay a laudamus of 
500,000 florins. This, though repeatedly cited, he was 
never in a condition to pay, consequently he was 
declared decaduto, and in 1635 his principality was 
given to Niccolo Ludovisi of Bologna, nephew of Gre- 
gory XV, and husband of Isabella of Binasco, who man- 
fully paid down a million florins as a thank-offering. 

The next event to be noticed is a sad one, fol- 
lowed, very shortly, by a sadder one, both of which 
must have been very heavy blows for Dudley, throw- 
ing a black cloud and sorrowful recollections over all 

1 The Court of Spain would have given it in 1611 to Isabella 
Countess of Binasco. Finally the Emperor Ferdinand II established 
that the Spanish should hold it, with the compact of making it a feudal 
estate for the one of the Appiani, who was judged by the Imperial 
tribunals to be the rightful claimant. 

108 PAET VII. 

the remainder of his life. The first of these melancholy 
events, the death of Dudley's heir, is thus noticed by 
Paolo Yerzoni (M. S. M., vol. I, pag. 18) : 

A dl 8 di Luglio 1631. Eicordo come questo giorno sono venute 
nuove della morte del primogenito del Sig. Duca di Vueruich seguita 
a Piombino, dove era andato a visitare la sua sorella, moglie del Prin- 
cipe di Pionibino. 

This ill-fated young man died on a visit to his 
sister Maria, a few days before he arrived at the age 
of twenty-one. His early death may perhaps be attri- 
buted to the peste, a sort of plague, which was then 
making many victims in Tuscany, or it may have been 
malarial fever, owing to the unhealthy air of the country 
round Piombino. Whatever may have been the cause 
of his death, it was a sudden and fearful infliction on 
his father, who often spoke of him as his great hope, 
being a good son, and not wild like Carlo. It fell 
especially heavy on his mother, who, but three months 
before, had given birth to her last and twelfth child. 

Only two months later the unhappy lady followed 
her beloved son to the grave. Her death is thus re- 
corded by Paolo Verzoni (pag. 21) : 

A di 10 7bre. Eicordo come in questo giorno e morta in Firenze 
la moglie del S. Duca di Veruich, c sotterrata in S. Pancrazio. 

This is another of Verzoni's mistakes; the Register 
of San Pancrazio runs thus : 

A di 13 7bre 1631. Morse ed Donna Elisabetta 
moglie delVEcc. Sig. Duca di Nortumbria, e si depositb vicino alia 
porta maggiore della Chiesa accanto alV fu gia D. Anna sua 

1 There is nothing left of the Duchess' tomb in Saint Pancras but 
a shield with the Dudley arms on it, of which I have a copy at Vin- 
cigliata Castle. There is no inscription extant, and archaeologists 
dispute whether this fragment is part of the tomb of Dudley himself 
or his wife. See Appendix, n. XXVI. 


Whatever may be said of her departure from Eng- 
land with Dudley, the act that ruled and coloured all 
her after life, and which may be excused with the 
reflection, that she thought it justified by Roman Cath- 
olic reasoning, it is certain, that in addition to her 
beauty, she had many good and great qualities, which 
made her loved and admired by all who knew her, 
and rendered her an especial favourite at the Grand- 
Ducal Court of Tuscany. 

For the twenty-four years of her life passed in 
Italy, she was a faithful wife and a loving mother. 

The grief of Robert Dudley in this bereavement may 
be better imagined than described. But fortunately 
for him his attention was partly diverted from his 
sorrow, by the work in which he was engaged for the 
Grand-Duke. He was, also, busied with the composition 
of his great book Arcano del Mare, which was destined 
to become famous; besides which he had duties to 
perform to his numerous children which he did not 

In 1633 he was occupied in arranging a marriage 
for his daughter Maria Maddalena, thus announced : 

A dl 30 Grennaio 1633 si pubblicd il matrimonio da contrarsi Ira 
gli Ecc.mi et lll.mi Signori Don Spinetta Malaspina, Marchese d'Oli- 
vola, da una parte; e Donna Maria Maddalena Dudlea Principessa 
di Nortumbria. 

The marriage took place in the presence of Queen 
Christine of Sweden. This also was a good match for 
the young lady. The Malaspina family, divided into 
several branches, possessed great part of the Lunigiana 
of which they were the feudal Lords under the Em- 
peror. Litta tells us that Spinetta Malaspina was made 
Marquis of Olivola by the investiture of the Emperor 

110 PART VJI. 

Ferdinand III, and on April 15th 1630 he was named 
high Steward to Christine Queen of Sweden, who, as 
we have said, had been present at his marriage. 

This marriage brought him in contact with the 
English families who had fled from their native coun- 
try to save themselves from the persecution which was 
there carried on against the Roman Catholics. He had 
long known the old Earl of Pembroke and formed an 
especial friendship with his son young Charles Herbert, 
a lad of sixteen, who had visited the Malaspinas at 
Olivola and frequented the Dudley's house in Florence 
where he died in 1635. It has been thought that as 
his tomb is at Olivola, his death took place there, but 
that is disproved by the following letter from Lorenzo 
Poltri to Salvetti in London, giving the official an- 
nouncement. It is dated January 8th 1636. 

" The Earl of Pembroke has died in this city after 
only five days' illness, no remedy having availed. The 
illness was adjudged to be small-pox. The Duke of 
Northumberland has done everything that was possible, 
but finally his hour was come. His Highness (the 
Grand-Duke) sent his own physician several times, and 
has heard with much grief of this grave event, sym- 
pathizing with the sorrow which this ill-news will bring 
the Earl his father, with whom His Serene Highness 

begs to condole sincerely The body was 

sent for interment to Olivola in Lunigiana, the place 
of Marchese Spinetta Malaspina, son-in-law of the Duke 
of Northumberland, and was conducted by Sig. Carlo Co- 
berel (?) and another gentleman of the neighbourhood, 
they being furnished with passports in case of any 
molestation which might happen on the journey. I re- 
gret much that it is my duty to give you this news, 


but we must resign ourselves to events, and I beg to 
kiss your hand, etc." 

Various letters written by Dudley throw interesting 
lights on his domestic life. In one on July 9th 1638 he 
begs the Grand-Duke to award a commenda in a re- 
ligious-knightly order (Knights of St. Stephen) vacated 
by the death of Cav. Carlo Piccolomini, to his son An- 
tonio, whom he wishes to bring up for the navy. The 
spurs were bestowed, but the young Cavalier did not 
long enjoy his knightly honours, for on November 19th 
of the same year, Dudley laments the death, at the 
early age of 18, of this young son Antonio, who he 
says was his great comfort being so obedient. 2 

In other letters he complains bitterly of the bad 
conduct of his now eldest son Carlo, who in 1638 was 
about 24 years old, and very contumacious. 3 Indeed the 
chronicle of his sins in these family letters is a long and 
serious one. His father must have found him difficult 
to manage for some years ; that there was a strong 
resentment between them, one gathers from a letter 
of Donna Isabella Aragona Appiana 4 to the Duke of 
Northumberland dated Boldrone June 4th 1637, saying 
she is sorry to bring the Duke ill-news, but friendship 
demands that she should warn him against his son 
Carlo, who since his return from prison has shown very 
strong ill-will to his father, saying he shall certainly be 
obliged to kill him : " The woman M. A. whom he keeps 

1 See Appendix, n. XXIX. 

2 See Appendix, n. XXX, XXXI, XXXII. 

3 See Appendix, n. XXXIII to XL. 

4 The Countess Appiani must have been staying for the summer 
at Dudley's Villa at Castello in Via del Boldrone, close to the Convent 
where Teresa was. She was a relative, probably mother of that young 
Count Appiani who married Anna Dudley. 

112 PART VII. 

in his house," says the Countess, " is afraid of her life 
to remain, he is so wild and furious. The peasants 
around say that even before his incarceration he used 
to threaten that he would have his father's life, and 
that he would take the silver away from the house, 
and run away from Florence." 

Evidently Dudley acted on this warning, for on 
June 15th the young man was sent under military 
escort to Olivola, his sister's Villa. This did not pre- 
vent him carrying out his puerile threat, for on Jan- 
uary 24th 1628, Dudley writes to Cioli, from his Villa: 
n I write to-day to beg your Excellency to inform His 
Serene Highness that Don Carlo with several men armed 
with guns entered my house, while I was at Mass, and 
carried away all the silver which was not locked 
up, to the value of 300 ducats. His Highness knows 
that I was aware of these evil designs and of others 
even worse. I hope some serious mark of displeasure 
from the court will be shown for so grave a crime 
against his father, and defiance to the laws of his 

Prince He came, as far as I can gather, 

from Lucca, and has probably returned there with his 
booty. I place myself entirely in the hands of His Se- 
rene Highness, etc., etc." 

Another letter goes into details, and reveals that, 
when the family went to Mass, the Duke first made 
sure that the whole house was securely locked up, 
leaving only an old woman servant in it. She proved 
unfaithful, and must have opened the door to Don Carlo. 

The Duke thinks his son must have consorted with 
bandits, for, against his father's express command, he 
persisted in retaining in his service a Genoese outlaw, 
and when he entered the house he was accompanied 


by nine men armed with pistols. A warrant was issued 
against Carlo, but the trouble was to find the fugitive. 
A certain Francesco Luchesini, a maker of clay images, 
wrote on February 9th in very queer Tuscan to the 
Duke to say that his son had just seen Don Carlo 
pass by in a postchaise, with his servant on horseback, 
going down a bye road, adding that " if the Duke will 
give something to the bearer, he may learn more 
about it." 

Next we hear that Don Carlo had twice been seen 
passing Castello, armed with his arquebus. Then he 
came with two armed men and boldly took up his 
quarters in the village Church, for in those days the 
altar was as a city of refuge. 

He had written two letters to his brother Don Am- 
brogio as if from Genoa, showing the intention of 
going to Marseilles. In them he complained of his 
father's mistake in treating his sons on the English 
system in Italy. In fact he darted about here and 
there, but his association with the brigands had evi- 
dently taught him how not to be caught. 

The Duke was in despair, and wrote letter after 
letter to the Grand-Duke through Cioli, saying he had 
done his utmost, and used every means in his power to 
keep his unhappy son in order. 

From several letters we find that Carlo declared 
himself a rebel, and stoutly refused to go to the 
fortress, or the Bargello at the Grand-Duke's bid- 
ding. Indeed he so far defied the Grand-Duke as to 
entrench himself in the centre of Florence, in the 
Church of the SS. Annunziata. At length in 1638 he 
was caught, and as he would not go to prison, was 
put in the convent of San Domingo a Fesula (as Dudley 



writes San Domenico di Fiesole), where the monks were 
at their wits' ends to know what to do with him. 
They dared not let him go out, and they could with 
difficulty keep him there. At length tired of confine- 
ment, the ill-advised youth came to terms : ff If his father 
would give him a new suit, suitable to the occasion, 1 ' 
he stipulated, " he would go to Germany and enter the 
service of King Matthias." 

The Duke of Northumberland said he would wil- 
lingly give the suit of clothes, but that he was sure it 
was only a ruse of Don Carlo, and as soon as he was 
free he would leave Germany and come back again. 
In the end he was really taken to the Bargello, within 
the strong walls of which he had to await the Grand- 
Duke's pleasure. 1 This even was done with arrogance ; 
he wrote to make stipulations that he should have a 
servant of his own free to come and go, and that he 
himself should not be confined to one room. 

The devout Donna Teresa did not after all carry 
out her girlish wish to take the veil, for in 1645 we 
learn that she was married with great state to the 
Duca della Cornia. Probably Robert Dudley, having 
obtained the money demanded from the King of Eng- 
land, was more able to keep her in the world, and give 
her a worthy dower. 

1 See Dudley's letters in Appendix, n. XXXIV to XXXVIII. 



.ND now Robert 
Dudley having mar- 
ried his daughters, 
and placed his sons 
in some of the Eu- 
ropean Courts, was 
able to give the years 
of bis mature life to 
science and litera- 
ture. He still endea- 
voured to keep his 
hold on Tuscan ma- 
rine matters, for in 
September 1638 he 
wrote from his Villa 
to the Prince Giovan 
Carlo de' Medici, who 
had just been created 
High Admiral of the 
Tuscan Navy, to offer 
his homage and swear 


btakre Oprrc 



Dues di Norchumbna.L: 

C.di Vaniich,8cLci- 

ceftcr Dedfrate. 

Con LtCfnz.*,{te Sup. 



his fealty, saying, that ff if his nautical experience of 
many years merited employment in the service of his 
Highness, he, though old, would be always ready to 
obey the Admiral's commands." ' 

In 1646 his great work, which may well be styled 
his "Magnum Opus," was published. Here is an exact 
copy of the first title page : 





And of the second title page : 












See Appendix, n. XLII. 






(Here, in the original, is placed an engraving of a 'mariner's compass.) 


After the second title page comes the diploma of the 
Emperor Ferdinand, creating Dudley, Duke of North- 
umberland, etc., folded to fit the page. 

The first volume is divided into two books ; in each 
book there are many engravings of nautical and scien- 
tific instruments and plans. 

The printing of a book was no easy matter in 
those clays. 

At page 55, which is the end of the first book, 
there are the following notices : 

ft II Sig. Canonico Vincenzio Martelli veda se nella 
presente opera si contenga cosa che repugni allo stam- 
pato e riferisca appresso. Nel di 5 d'Agosto, 1645," 
shewing that there existed a censorship of the press, 
and that Queen Christine's all powerful priests regu- 
lated it. The Canon however was merciful, and gave 
in Italian the following verdict : " I have read with 
all diligence this truly admirable and most useful 
work entitled the Arcano del Mare; and not having 
found in the said book anything repugnant to the 
Catholic Religion or to good customs, I judge it worthy 
to be printed. This 12th day of August, 1645. Vin- 
cenzo Martelli, Canonico Fiorentino." 


Under this is printed also in Italian : 

rt In accordance with the present report, we judge 
that the book may be printed, the usual formalities 
being observed. August 18th, 1645." 

Then Padre Maestro Alessandro Peri, Florentine 
Theological Doctor of the Order of San Francesco, re- 
examined this book on 21st of August, and referred 
his report, approving it in much the same form as 
Padre Martelli, passing it on to Fra Giacomo Cima, 
Inquisitor General of Florence. 

Lastly came Fra Jacobus, Inquisitor General and 
Alessandro Vettori, Senator, Auditor to the Grand-Duke, 
as the State Censors ; and finally the book went to press 
on 26th of August, 1645. Such were the formalities 
and permissions required before a book could be printed 
in the middle of the seventeenth century. 

Dudley's plan according to the preface was to di- 
vide his material into six books. The first, as his title 
page sets forth, treats of practical longitude in several 
systems invented by the author ; the second, of maps and 
charts in general and of portolani, rectified as to lon- 
gitude and latitude ; the third, of military and marine 
discipline ; the fourth, of his nautical architecture and 
building of war ships ; the fifth, of scientific and perfect 
navigation, i. e. in spirals or grand circles ; and the 
sixth, of Dudley's geographical and original maps. 

In the discourse on the mathematical sciences which 
forms part of the Arcano del Mare, Dudley puts the 
following quaint ideas into more quaint Italian. 

cr The omnipotent God," he writes, " has propor- 
tioned the world in regard to magnitude, number, and 
weight, and the created things in it are generally of 
three kinds, i. e. supernatural, natural, and a third 


species which one might call mathematical, and of 
which we shall principally treat in this discourse." 

We are further informed that rc the supernatural 
are simple, indivisable, and incorruptible in an ascend- 
ing scale; natural objects are complex, divisable, and 
corruptible in a descending scale ; but mathematical 
things are sure and infallible by demonstration ; and 
therefore these are more excellent than natural things, 
in which there enters an element of conjecture and 
probability, and which are inferior to the supernatural, 
to which human intellect cannot reach." 

The principle of " Great Circle sailing," adopted 
by Dudley in 1620 and described in his fifth book, 
though not primarily invented by him, was greatly 
improved and made practical by his developments of 
Nunez and Mercator's first dim notions. A further 
advance was made about 30 years ago in England 
by Mr. J. T. Towson, late scientific examiner to the 
Local Marine Board of Liverpool, who received from 
the Board on June 13th 1857 a testimonial of J? 1000 
for his valuable services in developing the principle of 
ct Great Circle sailing " by which the Australian voyages 
have been so much shortened. 

The fifth book contains 30 pages of print, also many 
engravings of wonderful nautical and astronomical in- 
struments ; and ends with a notice regarding the sixth 
book, and the intentions of the author therein. He an- 
nounces that the sixth book will contain 127 geo- 
graphical charts of the four quarters of the globe on 
a large scale: 54 being for Europe, 17 for Africa, 23 for 
Asia, and 33 for America. 

" These charts," he adds, " are all finished, and have 
been seen by the Superiors (ecclesiastical censors of 


the press) ; but as the author has modernized the Eu- 
ropean ones, which are not yet engraved for printing, 
he judges it better to defer the publication till these 
are complete. Meanwhile navigators who wish to sail by 
the most perfect system of longitude, may use the gene- 
ral charts in the second volume, with the corrections in 
the portolani which bring them to the same perfection." 

" Most pilots who know the coast, 1 ' he says, " prefer 
to use their experience, and for them the general charts 
in vol. II are sufficient ; but for sailing on the high 
seas by means of practical longitude and great circles, 
the new charts are of the greatest necessity. There- 
fore the author promises to publish this sixth book as 
soon as possible." 

It is probable that the publication was delayed as 
much by want of money to pay the engravers, as by 
want of time. 

The two first volumes of the first edition in the 
writer's possession (containing up to the fourth book) 
are printed on rough thick paper bound in light yel- 
lowish-brown leather with artistic gilding. In the cen- 
tre of each side are the Medici arms, surrounded by a 
Cardinal's hat and tassels; on the back the title and 
numbers of the parts contained in the volume. They are 
fine old tomes that would delight a lover of old books. 

The third volume is twice the size of the other two 
in measurement, though not in thickness. It bears 
the date of 1647. 

The fourth is very ponderous and filled with maps. 

All these were printed at the Stamperia di Fran- 
cesco Onofri, MDCXXXXVIII, a year later than the last. 

In 1661, twelve years after Dudley's death, a second 
edition of the Arcano del Mare was published in Flo- 


rence, 1 at the Sign of the Star, the new press of Giuseppe 
Cocchini, by the desire of Jacopo Bagnoni di Anton Fran- 
cesco Lucini, con licenza de'superiori. It is announced 
under the usual title, as " a second edition, enlarged 
and corrected according to the original by the late most 
excellent Duke, which is preserved in the Convento della 
Pace 2 by the Bernardine monks of the order of Foligno. 
It contains a general index of the whole work, its chap- 
ters, figures and instructions to the binder, etc., etc. 1 ' 

The dedication to the Venetian Republic is interest- 
ing in many respects, especially for its praise of Dudley, 
who, for forty years, had been engaged in the com- 
position of the Arcano del Mare, and for Lucini's state- 
ment, that he had himself been hard at work in a 
Tuscan village for twelve years after Dudley's death, 
preparing the second edition of this great work, and 
the engravings that illustrate it. 

After a stilted dissertation on the marine power of 
Venice, and man's power over the watery elements, 
Lucini says that K the same nature which gave laws to 
man, shall receive them back. Thus by the benefit of 
nautical science, many islands thrown by nature far 
away in the boundless sea, are now united in reciprocal 

1 Lord Leigh of Stoneleigh Abbey took home from Italy a copy 
of this second edition. The Bodleian Library has a copy of each 
edition, as also has the writer of this Memoir. The Magliabecchian 
possesses five volumes. Two of 1646-1647 richly bound with gilded scrolls 
and the Delia Rovere Arms on the cover ; two of 1661 in common 
board with parchment backs ; and one in green without letter-press, 
containing all the plates and maps from the edition of 1661. 

2 The Convent of La Pace near Porta Romana, in which the original 
first edition was preserved, no longer exists. The site and the land 
around it were used for the erection of the Royal Stables in the time 
of the late King Victor Emanuel, when Florence was used as the Capital. 
The said volumes are probably the ones now in the National Library of 



commerce, and the two hemispheres parted by a vast 
ocean are now one single world, the one part being ame- 
liorated, the other enriched. In this worthy emprise, 
my Serene Lords, if one man is more signally eminent 
than others, it is the Duke of Northumberland, who, to 
make himself master of marine science, tore himself 
away from a great house, in which he had princely 
birth ; and sacrificed full forty years of his life in 
unveiling, for the good of humanity at large, the 
mighty secrets of the sea; while I," naively adds Lu- 
cini, fc for twelve years sequestered from all the world 
in a little Tuscan village, have consumed no less than 
5000 Ibs., of copper in engravings to illustrate it. I 
deliberated a long time to whom I should dedicate the 
work which I now offer and consecrate solely alia Maestd 
della vostra Pubblica Munificenza. You who command so 
large a part of the seas, you whose name is glorious, 
etc., etc. ; " in fact a very long peroration which we 
will spare the reader. 

Lucini calls the two volumes of the second edition 
of 1661 amplissimi, and they deserve the epithet; he 
might have said pesantissimi. Each volume measures in 
length fifty-five centimetres and a half, in width forty- 
three centimetres, and in thickness six centimetres. 

Each of them weighs seven and a half kilogrammes. 
The first is however a trifle thicker and a trifle heavier 
than the second. They are very large, heavy, unma- 
nageable volumes. To be read with ease they require 
to be placed on a great lectern, like those used for 
the great missals in Roman Catholic churches. They 
are bound in the same coloured leather as the four 
volumes of the first edition, with a little tooling, but 
without gilding or coats of arms. 


The first book of the first volume consists of thirty 
pages of print and many engravings of instruments, etc., 
at the end of it is an engraving of two little angels 
holding the Florentine lily over a great star with the 
motto nunquam a sole. 

Then there comes the patent of the Emperor Fer- 
dinand, dated 1620, creating Dudley, Duke of North- 

The second book contains twenty-four pages of prin- 
ted matter and engravings of maps, and ends, like the 
first, with the little pictures of angels, etc. 

The third book contains twenty pages of print and 
illustrations of a war galley, and of ships of battle in 
array, and of land fortifications. 

The fourth book consists of twelve pages of print, 
and flourishing engravings of ships, etc. It ends with 
an elaborate, fantastic figure of a ship with a mast 
and a flag and sail, on which is the impresa with the 
motto nunquam a sole. 

The fifth book contains twenty-six pages of print 
and many engravings of wonderful instruments for 
finding the position of the sun and of the stars, also 
a ship in full sail. It also ends with the impresa and 
motto nunquam a sole. All these form one volume. 

The second volume contains the sixth book. The 
title page resembles that of the first volume. It is 
divided into four parts, consisting of forty-one pages of 
print and of many plans of the coast line, with notes 
as to the times of tides in all countries, and pictures of 
ships and fish, sea-monsters, and savages. It ends with 
the usual impresa and motto, and the initials J.B. A.F.L., 
that is Jacobo Bagnoni and Anton Francesco Lucini. 

In the map showing the Orinoco and a quantity 


of islands at its mouth, we find that one of the largest 
islands is named Dudleana, so called by Dudley on his 
voyage to America. 

At page thirty-three there is ft an account of the 
voyage of Captain Robert Thornton, an Englishman, 
sent to those parts by order, and at the expense of 
the most Serene Grand-Duke Ferdinand 1st his Lord." 
Probably by the advice of Dudley. 

" This said Captain," we are told by Lucini, " went 
and happily returned, and although he had never be- 
fore been in those parts, or even in the West Indies, 
nevertheless by the aid of the charts and instructions 
given by the author's (i. e. Dudley's) own hand, and 
by the grace of God, he completed the voyage without 
losing a man, and discovered the coast of Guiana 
more fully and more exactly than it had ever been 
known before. He also discovered the good port of 
Chiana, which is a secure, royal harbour, and had never 
in times past been seen by Christians ; and from here 
he brought with him five or six Indians, with the in- 
tention of presenting them to their Highnesses of Flo- 
rence, which he did the which are those Caribs who 
eat human flesh." 

These poor Caribs afterwards died in Florence, most 
of them of small-pox, which was to them more terrible 
than the plague, it being a disease never heard of in their 
own country. Only one lived on at the Court for seve- 
ral years, and served H. E. the Cardinal de'Medici, and 
learned to speak the Italian language quite easily. 1 

1 Probably this was the Cardinal to whom the four first volumes 
of the Arcano del Mare were dedicated, those with the Medici arms 
and Cardinal's hat. He had, as we have seen, interested himself in 
Dudley's affairs. 


These Indians from Chiana often talked to the author 
(Dudley) and others about the richness and fertility of 
the kingdom of Guiana, and how they ff had been to 
Monoa the metropolis of the kingdom, the residence 
of the monarch, who is called the Emperor, for he has 
many kingdoms under his sway. That city is eight 
days' journey from the port of Chiana; the Indians 
make the journey very swiftly on foot, traversing usually 
about fifty miles a day, and sometimes more. The In- 
dians also said that in a hilly country, near Chiana, 
was a very rich silver mine which they called Perota ; 
there was also some low gold called by them Calciri, of 
which they made certain images and half-moons, for 
ornaments. The above named Thornton confirmed the 
report, and besides asserted that the spiders of that 
country spun silk, and that there was much legno verzmo 
(rosewood), also wild sugar canes, white pepper, legno 
pardOj pith, balsam, cotton and many other kinds of 
merchandize which would form an abundant commerce, 
if it were well planted by Christians. He said the air 
was very healthy, and the entrance to the harbour well 
formed for fortifications to command the port ; and gave 
many other particulars of the country already printed 
by the author in 1637 (misprint for 1647), to which for 
brevity we refer the reader." 

The editor of the second edition goes on to say 
that a rf note of Dudley's : i look out for a Bornea at 6 Y* ' 
alluding to the mouth of the Amazon, where ships were 
at certain times in danger from a tidal wave, saved 
Captain Thornton from getting his vessel swamped." 
ft From this example," adds Lucini, " the importance of 
the marginal notes to Dudley's maps may be seen, when 
on many occasions three words were enough to save 


a ship and its crew .... Captain Thornton sailed from 
Leghorn in the month of September about 1608 and 
returned to the same port the end of June following 
in 1609 or thereabouts." 

After this most interesting relation of Captain 
Thornton's voyage 1 there is a long list of Indian 
words, with their equivalents in Italian, learned by 
Dudley himself on his early voyage to Trinidad in 1595. 

In July 1648 Dudley's younger daughter Teresa, 
Duchess of Cornia, gave birth to a posthumous child, 
her husband having died in the end of 1647. The 
child, Fulvio, lived but five months, dying on Decem- 
ber 14th 1648. This early death of her little son 
must have been a great loss, as well as a great grief 
to his young mother, as he being naturally heir to his 
dead father, she would have had the management of 
his estate during a long minority, whereas now it 
passed out of her hands. 

She did not remain long disconsolate however, but 
on June 25th 1649 she entered into a second contract 
of marriage as appears from a notice dated Septem- 
ber 2nd 1649, headed: ff Actum in Palatio Rurali solitae 
habitationis infrascripti Illustrissimi et Excellentissimi 
Domini Don Roberto Dudleo nuncupate vulgariter a 
Rinieri in populo Sancti Michaelis de Castello, etc., etc. 1 ' 
This notarial act is a ratification of a scritta di parentado 
which had been celebrated on June 25th of the same 
year, between Robert Dubley and his daughter Teresa, 
widow of Fulvio, Duke of Cornia, on one side ; and the 
Illustrious Count and Knight Mario, son of the late 
Count Tommaso of Carpigna, on the other. It is in 

1 He must have been one of the English captains whom Dudley 
called to Leghorn when he first entered the service of the Grand-Duke. 


fact a kind of marriage settlement; we quote it here 
to shew Dudley's continued attachment to the science 
of medicine. In it he gives Teresa and her husband 
the use of his palace in Florence, and a gift of "un 
suo studiolo di ebano detto la Cerusicheria, con cas- 
sette di argento ed altro in esso esistente, riservan- 
dosi 1'usufrutto perdurante la sua vita " (an ebony 
cabinet known as the medicine chest, with its silver 
boxes, and everything that is contained in it, reserving 
to himself the use of it during his lifetime). 

Dudley's enjoyment of his Cerusicheria lasted a very 
short time however, for on the 6th of September 1649, 
he died at his Villa Einieri at Castello, as appears in 
the following notice, reported from Yerzoni's MS. by 
Targioni in the Aggrandimenti, vol. Ill, pag. 42. 

1649. A dl 6 Settembre e morto in una Villa vicino a Firenze il 
Sig. Duca di Nortumbria e Conte di Warwick, Inglese chiamato Eu- 
berto, il quale e stato qui molti anni stipendiato dal He d'Ingkilterra, e 
tolto lo stato per essere buon Cattolico, ed e stato sepolto nella Chiesa 
di S. Pancrazio dove fu gia sepolta ancora la sua moglie Elisdbetta Sou- 
terel ; et era Persona di gran valore e bonta, e pratichissimo delle cose 
di Mare, avendo egli stampato qui in Firenze un dottissimo libro inti- 
tolato Arcano di Mare. 

The mistakes in this statement have already been 
noticed in the preface to this Memoir, where we have 
proved that no sign of his interment in San Pancrazio 
exists. An old MS. however speaks of the Dudley tomb 
being subterranean. 

The author of Atlience says that Dudley tf died in 
the month of September 1649 at Carbello (Castello) 
three miles from Florence, in a house which the Great- 
Duke of Tuscany permitted him to enjoy gratis during 
his life. Whereupon his body being conveyed to a 
nunnery at Boldrone, near to that place, it was there 


deposited ; but whether it hath been since conveyed to 
the Church of St. Pancras in Florence, wherein his wife 
Elizabeth had before been buried, and over whose grave 
he had erected a sumptuous Monument of marble, with 
intentions to be buried by her, I know not ; sure I am 
that the body was continuing at Boldrone in 1674, and 
may perhaps be there still." Now when we are in- 
formed by this author, that he had received the whole 
information for the article concerning Sir Robert Dud- 
ley from his son Carlo, second Duke of Northumberland, 
by letter dated Rome, October 17th 1673, we may be 
sure that his printed account is correct ; and that the 
body had not been conveyed from Boldrone to St. Pan- 
cras at the date of this letter. 1 

It is perhaps worth observing that in the register 
of deaths in the parish of St. Michael at Castello, in 
which parish the Villa where Dudley died was situated, 
the pages containing entries of the years from 1612 
to 1649 are wanting. It is a question whether they 
were lost or stolen, or wilfully destroyed. 

This Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, was 
certainly a very remarkable man. Nobly born, he 
was carefully educated, having had as his private tutor 
the well-known Thomas Challoner, who was afterwards 
tutor to Prince Henry, eldest son of James 1st of Eng- 
land. Like many other famous men of the time, he 
had a longing for the sea and for adventures, indeed 
he seems to have been destined from his birth, and 
by his own and his wife's (Elizabeth Southwell's) con- 
nection with famous sailors, to be the hero of nautical 
adventure, and to unveil the secrets of the sea. 

From the Italian Biography of Sir Robert Dudley. 


Through his mother he had in his veins the blood 
of William first Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High 
Admiral, one of the most distinguished naval com- 
manders in the "glorious reign" of Queen Elizabeth. 
Through his first wife he was connected with the South- 
wells, Vavasours and Rodneys, all of them bearing 
most illustrious names in the annals of the British Navy. 
He was in fact a distinguished soldier and a brave, 
prudent, and scientific sailor. He was skilled in coun- 
try sports, and in all knightly games and exercises, a 
favourite at Court, and V enfant gate des dames in Society. 

Though it is difficult to excuse his abandonment 
and repudiation of his wife Alice Leigh and her daugh- 
ters, it is evident that he had convinced himself by 
Roman Catholic rules and reasoning, that he was jus- 
tified in marrying Elizabeth Southwell, to whom he 
was undoubtedly a good and faithful husband. 

When he left England in disgust at the harsh and 
unjust conduct towards him of the Court and his step- 
mother's party, he began a new and most useful, and 
most honoured life at the Grand-Ducal Court of Tuscany. 
He proved himself well versed in architecture, military 
and naval, and faithfully served his adopted country. 
He was moreover a learned physician, an admirable 
author, and to the last an ardent student, active, in- 
ventive, and indefaticable, honoured not only at Flo- 
rence, but throughout Italy. 

His new port of Leghorn and his great work the 
Arcano del Mare have made his name famous in all 
the world. 



c0y u/onptcm, 

fTi&uj, et np?f 

{ J^ooertt fiucis 



J_jADr Alice Leigh, of Stoneleigh Abbey, Dudley's 
third wife, being left in England on his emigration to 
Italy, gave her mind to works of charity, and to at- 
tending to the welfare of her quartette of little daugh- 
ters. We take the following list of her good deeds 
from the headings of her funeral sermon, preached at 
St. Giles' in the Fields by the Eev. Robert Boreman D. D., 
March 14th, 1669. 

1st. She gave a new Chancel screen to the Church 
of St. Giles. 

2nd. Gave large donations to the restoration of 
the same, as may be seen by a tablet in the Church. 

3rd. Supplied silk hangings with silver fringe for 
the Chancel, a green velvet altar cloth, two white 
ditto, two altar cushions, a Turkey carpet and a neat 
ff pair of organs," in a case richly gilded; also altar 
rails, and Communion plate. 

4th. She augmented by ^20 a piece the yearly 
income of five poor Vicarages of which Kenilworth 
was one. 

132 PART IX. 

5th. Enriched the said five Churches with silver 
Communion services. 

6th. Bought a Rectory house, and endowed the 
Incumbent of St. Giles' with it. 

7th. Paid a yearly stipend to the sexton of the 
same Church to toll the passing bell for prisoners 
condemned to die. 

8th. Helped largely to repair Lichfield Church, and 
rebuilt St. Sepulchre's. 

At her death she left the following legacies : 

1st. < 100 to redeem Christian captives from the 
hands of infidels. 

2nd. Jg 400 to St. Giles' Hospital. 

3rd. ^ 200 to apprentice poor parish children. 

4th. ^P 100 per annum to each of the five poor 
parishes before mentioned. 

5th. ** 50 to be distributed at her funeral. 

6th. A gown and a pair of kerchiefs, to each of four- 
score and ten widows, who were to attend her funeral, 
and to receive a shilling each for a dinner afterwards. 

7th. JS 1 5 to the poor of every place where her 
corpse should rest, between London and Stoneleigh in 

8th. Six pence to every poor body that should meet 
her corpse by the road. 

9th. ^? 10 each for the poor of Blackley, Lich- 
borough and Patshill. 

10th. < 50 to be distributed in the parish of Stone- 
leigh on the day of her funeral. 

After this edifying list which speaks for itself upon 
her tomb, we may omit the Rev. Dr. Boreinan's lauda- 
tion, enlarging on them, and see what great families 
her daughters helped to adorn. 


The eldest of the four, Alicia Douglassia, 1 died young 
and her effigy lies beneath that of her mother in 
Stoneleigh Church, with this inscription: 

fc Here lyeth Alicia, who, dying before marriage on 
the 22nd of May 1621, left to her mother aforesaid, or 
to the cause of charity, a handsome patrimony, 2 to be 
at the disposal of her mother, and to be laid out in 
works of piety." 

How many of the good works recorded on Lady 
Dudley's tomb were performed with young Alicia's 
money, there is nothing to shew. Nor can we explain 
the fact of Robert Dudley's unmarried daughter hav- 
ing an independent fortune to bequeath. It looks as 
though Robert Dudley had at least done his deserted 
family pecuniary justice, and given up much of his 
wealth to provide for them. 

To see Dudley's second English daughter, you must 
go to St. Giles in the Fields, where she, Frances, wife of 
Sir Gilbert Kniveton of Bradley, Derby, Bart, lies in ef- 
figy wrapped in her winding sheet. When first erected, 
the monument was of the ancient bedstead form, but 
the Hon. Charles Leigh restored it to its present form 
in 1738. It seems to be by the same sculptor as the 
similar tombs of her mother and sister at Stoneleigh. 

History says nothing about Sir Gilbert Kniveton, 
the husband of Lady Frances Dudley. 

The two younger sisters married more prominent 
men. Lady Anne, the third daughter, became the wife 

1 Owing to a comma put in the wrong place in the Latin inscrip- 
tion of the Duchess Dudley's tomb, the words Alicia, Douglassia, have 
been taken to represent two persons instead of one. This is not the 
case ; the child was named Alicia from her mother, Douglassia from 
her grand-mother, Lady Sheffield. 

2 It was three thousand pounds. 

134 PART IX. 

of Sir Robert Holbourne, Solicitor General to Charles 1st, 
presumably the man who drew out the patent creating 
his mother-in-law, Alicia, Duchess Dudley. Lady Anne 
died about 1663. 

The youngest, Lady Katherine, who was born at 
Kenilworth about the time when her father left Eng- 
land, was the only one of the four daughters who 
survived her mother. She married Sir Richard Levi- 
son K. B. of Trentham, evidently a favourite courtier of 
King Charles 1st, who in the patent before quoted says: 

ff And we also casting our princely eye upon the 
faithful services done to us by Sir Richard Levison, 
Knight of the Bath, who hath married the Lady Ka- 
therine, one of the daughters of the said Duke, by his 
said wife, the said Lady Alice Dudley; and also the 
great services which Robert Holbourne, Esq., hath done 
to us, by his learned pen and otherwise (which said 
Robert Holbourne hath married the Lady Anne, one 
other of the daughters of the said Duke, by his said 
wife, the Lady Alice Dudley, etc.)."' 

We are told by Dugdale, that Lady Katherine imi- 
tated her mother in works of piety. 2 She rebuilt the 
Temple Church at Balshall, "Warwickshire, and aug- 
mented the Vicarage of Long-Itchington in the same 
county. She, too, founded some Hospitals and Schools, 
maintained twelve poor widows whom she clad in grey 
with the letters K and L sewn on their gowns in blue 
cloth. She moreover gave ^P 100 per annum for the 
placing out of poor apprentices. She died in Feb- 
ruary 1673, and was buried by her late husband at 
Lilshull, Salop. 

See Appendix, n. VI. 2 Baronage, vol. II, pag. 226. 



a . 









cl e i 



, A^ 








In Florence the line of Dudley opened out far and 
wide, and had ramifications with the best Italian fam- 
ilies of the 17th and 18th centuries, but, strange to say, 
they are at present all extinct. 

We cannot do better than give the proud father's 
own account of his family taken from an autograph 
statement, in possession of the writer; which we re- 
produce here in the original. It was written in 1628, 
when he was called on to prove Don Antonio's nobility 
of descent. 

After explaining the genealogical tree which makes 
out both Dudley and his wife to be of royal descent, 
and also his reasons for living in voluntary exile, he 
continues : 

" This Dudley has five sons 1 and five daughters : 

" Don Cosimo Dudleo, Earl of Warwick and Prince 
of Northumberland, eldest son, aged (hiatus). 

" Don Carlo, the second, aged 14. 

" Don Ambrogio, the third, aged 12. 

" Don Antonio, the fourth, aged 9. 

" Don Ferdinando, the fifth, aged 7. 

" The eldest girl is Donna Maria, aged 17. 

" Then Donna Anna, aged 16. 

" Donna Maddalena, aged 15. 

" Donna Teresa, aged 5, and 

" Donna Maria Cristina who is at the breast, the 
which w^as held at baptism by the illustrious Cardinal 
Barberini, and the Princess Maria Cristina of Tuscany." 

1 .He had seven : the fourth son, Giovanni, must have died young, 
as he is left out of this list. Don Enrico, the seventh, was not yet 
born. A full list of their births and copies of their registrations are 
given in the notes to the following pages. 



The sixth paragraph runs : c: The condition of the 
eldest girl is well known to every one, as also her 
deportment at Court, where she is invited by their 
Highnesses to all their fetes, and is much respected by 
them. She is a great favourite with the Princesses, 
especially the Duchess of Parma, now married." 

Paragraph 9 : " The dower of the eldest daughter 
will be in accordance with the person with whom we 
treat, and will not be less than that of the highest 
persons in Florence, or that which the Prince of Massa 
gave his daughter. This eldest daughter is under the 
protection of Madama Serenissima, who is seeking a 
good match for her, and favours her very much. 1 ' 

Paragraph eight informs us that " the sons are well 
brought up in letters, and every sort of virtu; they 
are taught the arts of design, dancing, riding and 
other knightly exercises. 

" Don Cosimo the eldest attends H. S. H. the Grand- 
Duke on horseback on festal occasions, and so well 
comported himself at the marriage of the Duke of 
Parma, that he was made the head of the Grand-Duke's 
squadron. He attends His Serene Highness on all oc- 
casions, and has the entree of the chamber, being much 
esteemed and favoured by his patron." 

After thus exalting his children, we can well accept 
Dudley's account of his own doings ; he says : r The 
Grand-Duke treats him as his equal with much respect 
and courtesy, as a Signore who has rendered him great 
services ; " going on to relate how by his plans and at a 
very moderate expense, Leghorn has been rendered not 
only the key of Tuscany for commerce, but also of Italy, 
to the extent of eight millions of scudi of merchandize, 
that are now annually brought there." 


138 PART IX. 

We have seen that the Grand-Duchess kept her 
word, and that Donna Maria 1 was married with all due 
ceremony to the Prince of Piombino ; that the bride and 
her husband's family kept up very friendly relations 
with her father's household ; the Appiani family spend- 
ing the summer months, which are unhealthy at Piom- 
bino, at Dudley's Villa at Castello (now the Villa Cor- 
sini in Via del Boldrone), and Maria's brothers and 
sisters visiting her in winter at her husband's castle, 
where her eldest brother died in 1631. 

And now as to the fates of this large progeny. 

Cosimo Dudley 2 was indeed a most promising young 
man, trained from his youth to courtly service, a great 
favourite with the Grand-Duke, who made him Colonel 
of his guard, while he was yet very young. He died 
in 1631, as we have said, at Piombino, cut off in the 
opening of a fine career. 

1 The baptism of Donna Maria is thus entered in the ' Registro 
all' Opera del Duomo, Firenze.' All children born in Florence were 
and are still baptized at San Giovanni, a Church dependent on the 
Duomo, very near the front of the Duomo. 

Tuesday. July 7th 1609. M. (Maria) del Sig. ruberto di ruberto 
d' udoleo (Dudley) Conte di Warwick inglese et delta Sig; Elisabetta di 
ruberto Sutel (Southwell) inglese P. di S. lor. (Parrocchia di San Lo- 

She was born on that day at 12 o'clock, baptized the same day. 
Her god-mother is named as la Sig. Maria tied Inglese. Ticci is 
probably an Italian corruption of the English name Tracy. There 
was a friend of the Dudleys named Tracy. 

2 The entry of Cosimo's baptism deserves to be here inserted, 
precisely as it was copied from the Registry. 

1610 Domen. Addl 18 Luglio. Cosimo del Sign. Conte Ruberto Du- 
daleo, et della Sig. Contessa Lisabetta Dudora di Barlictie p: Sto Pa- 
golo n. addl 16 N: 1. b. Addl 18. C. il serenissimo Grra Duca Cosimo 
secodo Grra Duca di Toscana et p. S. A. S. illmo Sig. Silvio Piccolomini 

Observe the fantastic spelling of the names, observe also that the 
god-father was the Grand-Duke, represented by a very noble Italian. 


Anna, his next sister, died young, just about the, 
time of her presentation. She seems to have been a 
gentle and saintly girl of great beauty. Nothing re- 
mains of her but her baptismal register 1 and funeral 

Maria Maddalena, the god-daughter of the Arch- 
duchess Maria Maddalena, 2 after her elder sister's mar- 
riage took her place at the Tuscan Court, and married 
into an old and well-known family, the Malespina, 
whose history we have given at pages 109, 110. Her 
home at Olivola on the beautiful slopes below the 
Carrara mountains near Sarzana, was a feudal castle 
of the Lords of Malespina. Here Dudley sent his wild 
son Charles when in disgrace with the Grand-Duke, 
and here is the tomb of the young Earl of Pembroke. 

The castle of Olivola remained in possession of Spi- 
netta Malespina and his wife M. M. Dudley till his death 
in 1655; his will is dated December 7th 1642. 

His widow Maria Maddalena Dudley, in 1660, mar- 
ried Giambattista son of Gianantonio Fieschi of the 
Counts of Lavagna. The English family Heneage is 
connected with this branch. The names of Fieschi and 
Dudley are frequent in the Heneage family. There 

1 Exact copy of Anna's baptismal register: 

1611 mercoledl a dl 26 Ottobre. Anna del III. Sig. Conte ruberto 

uaruich et la Sig. donna lisabetta P. di S. Michele Visdo- 

mini N. a dl 25 h. 13 b. a dl 26. C. Sig. don Aless: del Sig. Fab- 
britio Malespina Capitano delta guardia di S. A. S. 

Observe the dots following the Christian name ' Lisabetta ' put 
there probably in the Italian scribe's despair of writing the family 
name ' Southwell.' 

2 Mercoledl adl 19 Decembre 1612 Madda del Sig. Conte Ruberto 
Tf Udoleo di uaruich inglese et della Sig. Lisabetta uaruich P. di San 
Michele Visdomini n. a dl 16 d. h. 7 1/2 b. a. d. 19 d. C. la Sig. Luisa 
gerini gia ne' Marchesi del Monte p. la archiduchessa Maria 

140 PART IX. 

is in the Medicean archives (filza 5521) a letter from 
her to Cardinal Leopold dei Medici asking some Court 
office for a certain Cavalier Cesare Conosciuti. It is 
signed D a . Maria Maddalena Dudlea-Fiesca. 

Carlo, 1 the scapegrace of the family, was, as we 
have seen, a thorn in his father's side, and by his 
insolence and contumacy made it difficult for Robert 
Dudley to maintain his position at the Tuscan Court. 
If, like his father, he had been allowed to work off his 
youthful energies in travel and adventure, he would 
probably have been less hard to manage. As it was, 
the trammels of Court life chafed him, and he escaped 
them by absenting himself without leave, and refusing 
the bonds of etiquette. Unfortunately he fell into bad 
hands, and for the sake of lawlessness consorted with 
outlaws, the result of which we see in his raid on his 
father's Villa. He was but ill prepared to take his 
rank as Duke of Northumberland after his father's 
death. However he for many years sustained the office 
of gentleman of the chamber to Cardinal Giovan Carlo 
de'Medici,for which in 1640 he was receiving 192 ducats 
a year, besides Christmas gifts of wine and meat, and 
afterwards made a grand marriage with Marie Made- 
leine Gouffier of the ancient house of Gouffier of Poitou. 

The founder of the house, Jean Gouffier, was Seign- 
eur of Bonnivet of Lovan-Gouffier, of Bellefaye and 

1 Don Carlo's baptism: 

Lunedl 8 Settembre 1614 Carlo deW et Sig.Conte 
Eoberto del Signer Alberto di Varuick e dell' Sig. Contessa Lenter 
di Lanceter nominata Lisabetta del Sig. Cav. Euberto Sotuherch P. 
S. Pancrazio a di 7 do. h 2 b. a di 8 d. C. V et Don 
G-io: Medici. C. 

This son Carlo was an unruly and undutiful son to his father, 
as we shall shew later. 


Bataille, which he acquired in 1341. Jean Gouffier, the 
second, was Chamberlain to Charles II, then Dauphin. 
The third Gouffier, Aimeri, added to his family Seign- 
ories that of Boisy, and became Baron of Roannois, of 
Maulevrier, etc., was Counsellor and first Chamberlain 
to the King, Seneschal of Saintange, Governor of Tou- 
raine, and Tutor to King Charles VII, during his mino- 
rity. After this extraordinary celerity of aggrandise- 
ment in their rise, we are not amazed to hear that 
the house of Gouffier counted among its members, a 
Cardinal, a Grand Almoner of France, a Marechal, a 
first Chamberlain, a Grand Master of France, an Admi- 
ral, several Seneschals and Governors of provinces, etc. 
Unluckily after all this prosperity it became extinct 
in the middle of the eighteenth century. Among the 
family titles, which are numerous, are those of Comte 
d'Etampes, Comte de Caravas, Baron de Maulevrier, 
Due de Roaimez, Marquis de Boisy and Seigneur de 

This last was the branch to which Carlo Dudley's 
bride belonged, being the second daughter of Charles 
Antoine Gouffier, Marquis de Braseux, Seigneur de 
Crevecoeur, and his wife Franchise de Pisseleu, daugh- 
ter of the Seigneur de Heilly. Marie Madeleine was, 
when Carlo married her, already the widow of Sig. Fa- 
broni, Lord of Marradi in the Romagna. As to 
whether her marriage with Carlo Dudley wefe happy 
or not, we have not much evidence. Straws, they say, 
will shew which way the stream flows, and a few very 
small straws remain to us, in some fragments from 
Carlo Dudley's MS. Such as : 

La Signora Dudiessa mia moglie Jia voglia di licenziarsi. 
6 Aprile 1648. (My wife the Duchess wishes to go away.) 

142 PART IX. 

La Sig nor a Duchessa sta pronto, a partire per Lom- 

bar ditty perche cosl voleva il Sig. Duca 11 Sig. Duca 

faceva partire la Nipote. (The Duchess is about to leave 

for Lombardy, for such is the Duke's wish The 

Duke caused his niece to depart.) 

4 Feblraio 1650. La Contessa voile andare in casa di 
Giuliano Gondi colle sue robe. (The Countess wanted 
to go to the house of Giuliano Gondi with all her be- 

After all these signs of not being able to live in 
the same house, the longer manuscript, a petition, 
from Rome, dated May 5th 1676, is more intelligible. 
It says that, owing to the Duke of Northumberland 
being so long separated from his family, and deprived 
of his property (this seems to mean exile and con- 
fiscation), he beseeches the Grand-Duke to remember 
on his behalf the services rendered by his father, 
especially in the Port of Leghorn. He pleads that, 
without his property, his daughter is losing a great 
matrimonial chance, the Princess of Rossano having 
proposed a marriage for her with the Prince of Stron- 
goli, but in his present state he has no means of giving 
her the requisite dower. 

This daughter was Carola, not the famous Christine 
who was married in 1663 to Marchese Paleotti. It 
may be presumed that the Grand-Duke recalled him 
from exile, for in 1685 we have evidence of his living 
in his father's house in Florence, under circumstances 
which seem to show however, that Carlo, Duke of North- 
umberland was little less amenable to the decencies of 
Court life than Carlo the youth. 

A curious old MS. in possession of the author gives 
a view of him at seventy years of age, the year before 


his death, that is certainly not prepossessing. We are 
told that on the 17th of February 1685, there was a 
reception in Casa Corsi, at which the Duke of North- 
umberland assisted. He had taken a chair which had 
been placed for the ladies, and Marchese Capponi, 
master of the ceremonies, asked him to give it up to 
one of the dames. This he disregarded, till, on the 
request being repeated, the Duke became enraged, and 
haughtily said that persons of his rank were entitled 
to sit where they chose. High words followed till the 
Duke in a fury put his hand in his pocket. The 
Marchese, thinking he would draw out his pistols, em- 
braced him with both arms so that he could not move 
his hands, till other Cavaliers came to his assistance. 
There was a grand scene, Ladies screaming and run- 
ning to the door, Cavaliers struggling in the room, 
angry or alarmed voices on all sides, and suddenly 
into the midst of it there entered Prince Ferdinand, 
son of the Grand-Duke Cosimo III. He demanded to 
know what tumult was going on, and ordered the 
Marchese Capponi to retire to his own house, and not 
to leave it till further orders, and told the Duke that one 
of the Court carriages was waiting for him. Some of 
his own gentlemen and squires escorted the Duke home, 
who also had orders not to leave his house till further 

Prince Ferdinand sent to inform the Grand-Duke 
at Pisa, of the fact, who, approving all his son had 
done, said he would now take the matter into his 
own hands. He sent the Sergeant general, Brac- 
ciolini, to the Duke to obtain his apologies. These 
Carlo refused to give, and held to his demands of 
satisfaction from the Marquis. Much time was lost, 

144 PART IX. 

but it only rendered the Duke more obstinate than 
before, and in fact so contumacious that the Sbirri of 
the Bargello were placed to guard his house at night. 
At length an officer and twelve soldiers from the for- 
tress were sent to say that the Grand-Duke desired 
his recalcitrant courtier to transfer his residence to the 
fortress. "Without a word of remonstrance the Duke 
of Northumberland ordered his carriage, walked haugh- 
tily into it, and was forthwith taken to the prison at 
the fortress, in which Filippo Strozzi found his tomb, 
and where Carlo himself had been confined in 1638. 
This is the last we hear of Carlo Dudley till his death 
in 1686. 

Don Ambrogio, who was no doubt named after his 
great uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, was a page to 
the Grand-Duchess and had, besides his servant, a tutor 
to take care of him, " lest he should spend all his 
month's allowance at once." A stray note mentions 
that he wrote to his brother Carlo from his sister's 
house at Olivola, on 15th of July 1637, and another 
in his father's hand recording that in 1628 " Don Am- 
brogio was in love, and paying court to a daughter 
of the Rucellai close by." The Kucellai palace is only 
a few steps from Dudley's house in the Yigna Nuova. 
No such marriage is recorded, nor do we hear of Don 
Ambrogio after this, as he died young. 

1 This is the registration of Dudley's sixth child, Ambrogio, born 
on the 4th April 1617: 

Mercoledl 5 Aprile 1617. Ambrogio dl Sig re Ruberto Conte cli 

varvic di rubet dudel e delta Sig rn Elisabetta del S. re Ruberto 

P. S. brancatis n. a. dl 4. h. 19 1 \2 b. a. d. 5 d. C. Ill nto et Ecc. w 8ig re 
don Antonio Medici p. sua altezza di Medici. C. sua altezza di Man- 
tova p. sua altezza la Sig r(l Beatrice Marchesa baglioni ne' Malespini. 
(ne' is the abbreviation of nei, and means married into the Malespini 


Don Giovanni his next brother also died young. 1 
Don Antonio 2 was one of the pages of the Grand- 
Duchess. Dudley evidently intended to make a naval 
officer of him, but he did not live to fulfil his des- 
tiny. In 1636 his father obtained his election into the 
knightly Order of St. Stephen. A great many cere- 
monies and formalities had to be gone through before 
the young man got his spurs. A ponderous legal deed, 
called an Atto di provanze, had to be drawn up, proving 
that the postulant was of noble descent through all 
his four grand-parents. Dudley drew up a genealogical 
tree proving his own descent from King Henry III, 
and that of his wife Elizabeth from King Edward II of 
England. Then came acts of notary, registrations, etc., 
and after all the young man only donned the white 
robe of Knighthood a few months before his early 
death. 3 

In the following year we find the name of Conte 
Don Antonio Dudleo, Cavaliere dell' Ordine di Santo Ste- 
fano, as one of the actors in a grand Court pageant, 
held at the Pitti Palace for the delectation of the Grand- 

1 Baptism of the seventh child, Giovanni, born on the 19th Jan. 1618: 
Masti (maschi) di G-ennaio 1618. Dom. ca a. d, 20. Gio. dl Sig. r Conte 

Euberto d' Varvich e dla Sig lisabetta dl Sig 1 ' Euberto suel. P. S. Pan- 
cratio N. a dl 19. b. a. d. 21 d. C. U E.A.M.S. Cardinale de' Medici 
p. S. A. E. S. 8ig>' Averardo dell mo Eaff le Medici. 0. la Sig Princi- 
pessa Claudia d' Urbino. p. el Sig Mar ta Concina. 

2 dom. a dl 31 Maggio 1620. Antonio dell' Sig. Conte Eu- 
berto di ruberto dudleo conte di uaruich et della Sign. Contessa Eli- 

sabetta del Sig roberto P. S. Pancrazio. n. d. d. h. 6. b. d. d. 

C. il Sig. riccardo di deburgo p. I' Sig. Principe don lor.zo 
Medici C. la Sig. Marchesa leonora concini p. V Sig. Principessa 
Maria Medici duchessa d' urbino. 

In 1621 Elizabeth, now Duchess of Northumberland, gave birth to 
a ninth child. 

3 See Appendix, n. XXX, XXXI. 




Duchess Vittoria della Rovere. The pageant was called 
Le Nozze degli Dei (Marriages of the Gods). There 
were thirty gods and goddesses, all courtiers, besides 
various choruses, such as the twelve nymphs of Diana ; 
seventeen Cyclops of Vulcan; the nine Muses; the chorus 
of Venus, consisting of fourteen loves, three Graces, 
" the genius of Smiles " and " Frolic ; " thirty marine 
gods of Neptune ; forty celestial spirits of Jupiter ; 
twenty infernal Numi of Pluto ; and fourteen nymphs 
of Juno. There was also a battle between the warriors 
of Mars and Vulcan. It must have been a grand 
spectacle, and was probably the last gay scene in which 
Don Antonio took part. 

Don Ferdinando 1 became a monk. In an old letter 
of Robert Dudley's to Cioli, while enumerating the 
expenses of maintaining and dressing his large family, 
he dismisses the priestly son with the words : " Don Fer- 
dinando is in his novitiate and spends almost nothing." 
He was in the Convent of San Domenico at Fiesole. 

At the same time his next sister Donna Teresa 2 was 
in the Convent of the Crocetta in Via del Boldrone, 
close to the family Villa at Castello. As we have before 
said, she wished at an early age to be a nun, but as 

1 Baptized and thus registered : 

Masti 1621. lunedl a dl 11 8bre Ferdinando del et 
Sig. Duca Dudduleo dl nortunibria e conte dl uaruiche e della Sig. Eli- 

sabett P.dlS. Pancrazio n. d dl. a. h. 11 C. I'lllust. Sig. Mar- 

chese Ferdi. Riano p. il S. Gr. Duca. 

- From the birth register of the Baptistery : 

Femmine 1623 Glovedl a dl 22 G-iugno. Teresia dl Don Ruberto 
Dudleo Duca di Nortumbria e della Sig. lisabetta del Sig. Ru- 
berto Sotlele. P. S. Pancrazio n. a. di do. li. 2 1). a di. C. il Fer- 
dinando G-onzaglia Duca di Mantova e p. lui V Sig Marcliese 
Piero Gulcclardinl C. la Principessa MargJierita Medici e p. lei VELma 
S. Marches Ipolita Malesplna. 

Observe the family name Southwell written Sotiele. 

148 PART IX. 

she grew older and went to Court, she became more 
worldly. She was almost a greater favorite at the 
Pitti Palace than her sisters had been, and on Sep- 
tember 24th 1645, she was married to the Duca della 
Cornia of the great Perugia family. This marriage 
is thus mentioned by Paolo Verzoni, MS., Mag., t. II, 
pag. 198: 

A dl 24 Settembre 1645. Hicordo come questa sera il Signer Duca 
dela Cornia ha dato V anello alia sua nuova moglie, die ha preso, die 
e una figlia del S. Duca di Nottumbria, e V anello si e dato net Palazzo 
de' Pitti alia presenza del Serenissimi Padroni, et in quella sera si fece 
un bellissimo festino in detto luogo per solennizzar quelle nozze. 

Although the Duca della Cornia was a widower, this 
was a very good match for the daughter of the Dudley 
family. The young lady was then about twenty-two 
years old. She was especially honoured too, in the 
Grand-Duke having the wedding ceremony performed 
in his own Palace, and in being himself one of the 
witnesses. In the evening the Grand-Duchess gave a 
fesla at the Pitti Palace in honour of the bride, and 
Donna Teresa must have felt very important in being 
thus made the centre and cause of a Court Fete. As 
we have said, her first taste of married life did not 
last long. She became a widow before she was a 
mother, 1 and her child, a boy, named Fulvio, died a 

1 In 1648 in MS. (Mag., t. II, pag. 369) of Paolo Verzoni there is 
the following entry : 

A dl 5 Luglio ricordo come questo giorno e stato l)attezzato in 
questa cittd un figlio del gia S. Duca della Cornia, il quale mori alii 
mesi passati, lassato il venire pregnante, al quale e stato posto nome 
Fulvio Lodovico Melchior e sono stati tenuti dalla Sig ra Ortensia Sal- 
viati a nome della Ser. G-ran Ducliessa, e da Mons. Nunzio Bentivo- 
glio a nome del S. Cardinale Sforza. 


few months after, 1 a bitter trial for one so young. The 
trial was aggravated by law worries. Her son dying 
in infancy, she became his heir ab intestato ; but the 
Apostolic Chamber here came in, and decreeing that 
the family of Cornia, being by this child's death extinct, 
his properties reverted to the Church. This decree 
was promulgated in Rome on December 13th 1647, and 
drawn up by Galoppi the notary who was secretary to 
the re Apostolic Camera." 

The Duchess Teresa strenuously fought for her rights, 
but never obtained them. The long law-suit was 
ultimately finished after her death by a transaction 
between her heirs and the Apostolic Chamber, in which 
the latter was of course the chief gainer. 

These were indeed vicissitudes, but youth helped 
her through, and with the elasticity of her age, she 
soon formed other ties. A few months after her child's 
birth and early death, she married another great man, 
the Count of Carpegna. Of him Yerzoni (pag. 212) 
records that " on January 12th 1646 the Count Mario 
Carpegna, first gentleman of the Chamber to the Car- 
dinal Carlo de' Medici, was chosen as High Steward, in 
place of the Abate Corsi, sent as vice legate to Avignon." 

Litta in his Famiglie celebri tells us that Mario was of 
the family of the Conti di Carpegna in Montefeltro, that 
he was made Knight of St. Stephen on April 3rd 1604, 
held the post of High Steward to Cardinal Carlo de' Me- 
dici at the Court of Tuscany, where he met the beautiful 

1 In the MS. (Mag., t. II, pag. 349) of Paolo Verzoni there is the 
following entry : 

A d\ 14 Dicembre 1648. Eicordo che questo giorno e passato a 
miglior vita V unico figlio del gia S. Duca delta Corgnia, che era a" eta 
di mesi cinque, chiamato Fulvio Lodovico Melchior, ed e morto in 

150 PART IX. 

and interesting young widow Teresa Dudley, Duchess 
Cornia. He had been elected Gonfaloniere of Rimini, 
where his family were inscribed on the Roll of Nobles. 
He made his will in Rome, June 3rd 1661, where he 
died after having instituted for his descendants, the law 
of primogeniture in the person of his eldest son Ulde- 
rico Gaetano, leaving his wife guardian of their three 
children Vittoria, Ulderico Gaetano, and Anna Maria. 
His widow died in Rome August 21st 1698. 

It was to give the Count and Countess of Carpegna 
a home in Florence near their Court duties, that Dudley 
executed that deed on their marriage in 1649, giving 
them the use of the house in Vigna Nuova for five years. 
By Robert Dudley's will Teresa and her husband inherited 
a third share in the family palace, the other two being 
held by her only surviving brothers Carlo and Enrico. 

Of little Maria Cristina there seems but little to 
say, the only view of her we get is Dudley's mention 
of her christening, 1 and her being nursed by her mother. 

Don Enrico, the youngest of all, appears now and 
then in the family chronicles. 2 For instance, in the 
letter to Cioli, before spoken of, Dudley says: 

1 Thus registered: 

1628 Martedl a di 20 G-iugno Maria Christina dcll' Sig. 
ruberto di ruberto Duca di Nortliumbria e dell' Signora lisa- 

betta p. di S. Pancrazio n. il d. 18 C. I' c. E. Mans. 

Alplionso Giliucci nutio d' appresso il Gr. D. di Toscana p. I' Lllmo 
S. Card.le Francesco Barber ino G. la Marc. Ipolita Malespina p. la 
Princ. Maria Christina P. di Toscana. 

Here the civic scribe gives up the task of spelling Southwell alto- 
gether and leaves an hiatus. 

2 Don Enrico's birth is thus registered : 

Martedl a di p. Aprile 1631 Enrico dell' Sig Duca Don Eo- 
berto Dudleo Duca di Nortumbria e dell' Sig. Elisabetta di Don 
Euperto Sauthuel P. S. Pancrazio. n. d. d. h. 3. C. il. Sig. Principe 
Gia. Carlo Medici p. lui il Sig. Marchese Niccolini. 


K Don Enrico spends five scudi a month," and a 
little before he remarks : K Don Enrico is kept at Oli- 
vola by his sister the Marchesa Malespina." 

This good elder sister evidently took a mother's 
part to the little motherless baby. 

We also find his name as page on the roll of the 
household of Cardinal de' Medici in 1644. 

The Medicean Archives (filza 5535) contain two let- 
ters dated respectively April 16th and May 7th 1662, 
written by Don Enrico to the Grand-Duke, praying 
for a reversion of the decree made by him four years 
previously, stopping a certain suit for debt, brought 
by Don Enrico against his brother Carlo, Duke of 
Northumberland. He says that " he had paid all the 
expenses of the Magistrate delta Mercanzia, before which 
Court the case was brought, and that this long sus- 
pension of justice did him much harm." ' The Grand- 
Duke seems not to have answered the first of these, 
as the second is almost identical in substance. This 
Henry, who in 1652 became Earl of Warwick (all 
his elder brothers, except Carlo, being deceased), was 
joint heir with Carlo Duke of Northumberland, of their 
father's house in Vigna Nuova. 

To the third generation the family of Dudley kept 
up its prestige. The wild Carlo had two sons, Antonio, 
and Roberto, and two daughters, Christine who was 
a famous if unprincipled beauty, and another, Carlotta, 
who was to have married Prince Strongoli. 2 

At the birth of Carlotta on December 1650, we find 
Carlo Duke of Northumberland writing to ask the Grand- 
Duke and " Madonna Reale " to stand as sponsors to his 

1 See Appendix, n. XLIII. 

2 See Appendix, n. XLIV. 

152 PART IX. 

newly-born daughter. On this occasion he is loyal 
enough. ff l who was born under the protection of 
Your Highness," he writes, " am bound in duty on every 
occasion most humbly to confirm my ready and obedient 
service to you. Therefore I beseech you to accept these 
my dutiful observances, and to permit me to kiss your 
robe. Your most Serene Highnesses most humble, obe- 
dient and faithfull servant, 


This baptism seems to have taken place in the mo- 
nastery of San Mccolo. 1 Besides the Grand-Duke and 
Duchess there were present the Grand-Duchess Vittoria 
della Rover e and Princess Margherita Luisa of Orleans. 

Carlo Duke of Northumberland had taken up his 
residence in Bologna, and there his son Eobert retained 
his home till his death in 1706. He was Chamberlain 
to Queen Christine. His will, drawn up by Ser Ja- 
copo Mezzavilla, is dated April 29th 1706, and is to 
be seen in the Archives- of Bologna. 

Don Antonio, Carlo's second son, chose the Church 
as his profession, although he had been made Knight 
of St. Stephen without the usual formalities. He was 

1 Del Migliore thus mentions the baptism : 

" E perche vi son sempre state Donne de le prime case di Firenze, 
su luogo antiposto, e reputato convenevole alia funzione del tenersi al 
Battesimo, nel 1661 da Ferdinando Carlo Arciduca d' Austria, con Anna 
de 1 Medici, sua moglie, la Carlotta Luisa, nata di Don Carlo Dudley 
Duca di Nortumbria, conte di Varviche e Lincestre, descendente dal 
sangue Regio d' Inghilterra, e di D. Maria Guffi er de' Duchi d'Aquita- 
nia : presenti col seguito della prima nobilta, le Granduchesse Vittoria 
della Rovere e la Margherita Luisa d' Orleans. (Passeremo alia Nun- 
ziata, di li poco distante.) " DEL MIGLIORE'S Firense, ed. 1734, lib. I, 
pag. 261. 


Canon of the Vatican, and was buried in Rome in 1728 
aged 75, in the especial place of sepulture for the 
Canons. He lived in Via Sant'Agnese in Rome, in the 
house of his brother-in-law the Marchese Paleotti ; 1 
until, in 1692, both Carlo and Enrico being deceased, 
their shares of the family home in Florence passed to 
him. This same priestly Don Antonio also became 
possessed, in 1695, of several farms near Fiesole, and 
in the parish of San Martino at Maiano, left to him 
by his mother Maria Maddalena Gouffier, Marchioness 
of Braxeis. 

Till 1720 the Canon lived at Viterbo, where he 
made his will, leaving his nephew Marchese Tommaso 
Paleotti sole heir to all the Dudley property in Flo- 
rence, Fiesole, and Maiano. He too seems to have 
died soon after, for in the year 1728, all these properties 
lapsed to the Marchese Andrea Paleotti, Canon Anto- 
nio's heir at law, the line of Dudley being then extinct. 

Carlo's daughter Cristina, who married Marchese Pa- 
leotti, was at a very early age a lady in waiting at the 
Court of Savoy ; the chronicler Tioli records under the 
date of December 23rd 1663, that K the Marchese An- 
drea Paleotti arrived at Bologna from Turin with his 
bride Donna Cristina, daughter of the English Duke of 
Northumberland, who was in the Court of Madama 
di Savoia at the age of fifteen." He adds that "for 
beauty, spirit, and Uzzarria, few or none could equal 

1 From information kindly afforded me by the Cavaliere Dottore 
Odoardo Vecehietti of Florence for which I beg to thank him sincerely, 
we learn that the Palazzo Paleotti in Bologna is in] the Via Luigi Lam- 
boni gia San Donato, and that it occupies the site of the ancient Pa- 
lazzo Bentivoglio, with which family the Paleotti intermarried in the 
17th century. Several of the Paleotti were Senators, and one of them 
a Cardinal. 


154 PART IX. 

her, and that neither Prince nor Cavalier could pass 
without admiration, and wishing to know her." 

This beautiful Cristina's daughter, Diana, only six- 
teen years younger than her mother, inherited her 
beauty and eccentricity, with some of her grand-father's 
wildness. She married into the Colonna family, as we 
learn from Imhoff. In his Genealogies viginti illustrium 
in Italia Familiarum, etc., Amstedolani, ex officina Fra- 
trum Chatelain, anno MDCCX, Imhoff says, in speak- 
ing of the great Colonna family of Rome: 

"Marcus Antonius secundogenitus praecipitato ex 
amoris sestu cum fcemina forma magis quam dote pree- 
dita, haud tamen ignobili, et maternum genus ad Lei- 
cestrise Comitem in Anglia, gratia Elisabethae Reginse, 
florentissimum , refer ente matrimonio, fratribus co- 
gnatisque stomachum movit, eaque propter procul ab 
illis setatem egit, quattuor jam liberorum sequioris 
sexus pater, sicut accepimus, (Carolo?) natu minimo 
Innocentius XII Papa inter domesticos suos Prsefecti 
domus (Maggiordomo) dignatione adscito, et Principi 
Protonotariorum Apostolicorum creato spem galeri ru- 
bei injecit, sed morte sua destituit ; quam contra illius 
successor Clemens XI implevit." 

For all the particulars of this marriage of Marc'An- 
tonio Colonna and Diana, the favourite daughter of 
Cristina Paleotti born Dudley, and of the life and ad- 
ventures of the beautiful, fascinating and profligate 
Cristina Paleotti herself, consult the very interesting 
volume Una illustre avventuriera, Cristina di Nortum- 
bria, by Corrado Ricci, seconda edizione, Milano, Fra- 
telli Treves, editori, 1891. 

It contains a graphic description of the manners, 
customs and amusements of the high and gay society 


of Bologna, towards the end of the seventeenth century. 
It gives moreover the true history of the daughter of 
Charles Dudley, by his French wife Marie Madeleine 
Gouffier. In beauty, wit and eccentricity, few or none 
could equal her, and none were so daring and ad- 

She soon became the most celebrated beauty in 
Bologna, and so she continued for many years, through 
strange adventures and vicissitudes. Tre volte nella 
polvere, tre volte sugli altari (thrice in the dust, thrice 
on the altars) to the end of her romantic life. Her 
last and greatest adventure resulted in her success in 
marrying her daughter to Don Marc'Antonio of the 
great Koman family of the Colonna, notwithstanding 
the bitter opposition of the Colonna family. It was 
even suggested that the marriage w r as null and void, 
because the old Constable Colonna had in past years 
been the successful lover of Cristina, and was father 
of a child by her. But in the end Diana was publicly 
acknowledged as the true and lawful wife of Marc'An- 
tonio, a very great match even for one of the Paleotti, 
and a descendant from the Duke of Northumberland. 
Cristina's son Tommaso, Colonel of the Guard, of the 
Grand-Duke, was made Knight of St. Stephen in 1724. 

Another daughter, Adelhida or Adelaide, had almost 
as adventurous a life. After a very unfortunate mar- 
riage with an Italian named Roffeni, she became pro- 
testant and espoused the Duke of Shrewsbury, whom 
she had met at the house of her cousin the Conte di 
Carpegna. She was a leader of Society in London, 
where she held receptions on Sunday and Thursday. 
She was lady in waiting to the Princess of Wales. 

She was much persecuted in London by her wild 


brother Ferdinand, who after getting into trouble in 
several of the European courts, gave constant alarm 
and annoyance to the Duke and Duchess of Shrewsbury. 
He was finally hanged at Tyburn on March 28th, 1718, 
for the murder of his Italian lacquey Giovanni Niccolo. 
He made a special request to the hangman, that he 
might be hanged apart from the other prisoners, who 
were to be executed at the same time (on black Monday), 
so that he might not be denied, by being touched by 
them in their death struggles. The Marchese Neri Cor- 
sini, of the day, Inviato of the Grand-Duke in London, 
was present at the execution. 1 

The children of Teresa Contessa di Carpegna, also, 
attained to high offices at Court. Ulderico Gaetano, 
the heir, was a great favourite of the Grand-Duke 
Ferdinand II, who honoured him with the collar of 
the Order of St. Stephen at the early age of 14. 

His two sisters were maids of honour to the Grand- 
Duchess, and were distinguished at Court for their intel- 
lectual qualities and high education. Vittoria married 
a Roman noble named Cavalieri ; her son the Mar- 
chese Emilio de' Cavalieri was the residuary legatee 
of his grand-mother Duchess Teresa. 

Anna Maria, the other sister, married another Roman 
noble, Marchese Giovanni Battista Naro. 

No Dudleys in the line male now remained to carry 
on the name. After the third generation they became 
extinct in Italy. 

Una illustre avventuriera, pag. 271 to 282. 



The Earl of Leicester's Will. 

The Probate bears Date 6 th Sept. 1588, and Administration was granted to 
Lady Lettice Countess of Leicester his Relict, and Executrix. 

This is the last Will and Testament of me Robert Earl of 
Leicester, her Majesty s Lievtenant General of all her Forces in 
the Low-Countries, and Governor and Captain General of all the 
United Privinces, written with his own hand the First of August 
in Middleborough 1578. First I take it the to be the Part of 
every true Christian, to make a true Testimony of his Faith at 
all Times, and especially in such a Case and such a Time as 
this is. And, therefore, I do mean here faithfully to make a 
short Declaration to testify in what Faith I do live, and depart 
from this World through the Grace of my Lord and Saviour 
to continue me in the same till the Seperation of this Life and 
Body. And so I do acknowledge my Creation and Being, to be 
had and continued by the Providence of our Almighty God, the 
Creator of all Things both in Heaven and Earth, and do confess, 
that above all Deeds, that his Divine Majesty hath done for 
Mankind, is the Gift of his blessed Son, Christ Jesus, to be the 
Redeemer and Saviour of his People that be faithfull, by whose 
only Merits and Passion I verily believe and am most assured 
of the forgiveness of all my Sinnes, be they never so great or 
infinite and that he only is the sufficient Sacrifice that hath 
appeased the Wrath of his Father, and that blessed Lamb, which 
innocently suffered all Torments, to bear the bitter Burden due 
to us miserable Wretches, for his most tender Compassion over 
all that have Grace to Believe in him. All which his Graces 


Goodness and Mercy I most faithfully take hold on, being so 
promised by himself, who is the only Truth itself, that I am 
the Child of Salvation ; and to be the Inheritour of his ever- 
lasting Kingdom, and to meet with him at the joyfull Day of 
Resurrection, with all the faithful Children, and Saints of God. 
In this Faith I now live, and in this Faith I trust to change 
this Life, with continual Prayer to the Throne of Grace, to grant 
me, during this Pilgrimage of mine, a true, humble and penitent 
Heart, for the due recognition of all mine Offences, and the 
willing Amendment of the same, and to fly instantly to the 
sure Ankerholde my Lord and Saviour, Christ Jesus, to whom 
with the Father and the Holy Spirit, be all Honour, Glory and 
Dominion, forever. Amen. Thus being in perfect Health and 
Memory, and having set down my Faith as a true Christian, 
and being uncertain of the Hour of Death, I think it my Part 
to settle my worldly Matters in as good Estate as I can, spe- 
cially being hastily and suddenly sent over, and likewise having 
very little Leasure, since my Arrival to get any Time for my 
private Business. 

But first my Will is, to commit this wretched Body of mine, 
when it shall please God to seperate it from the Soul, to the 
Order of my dear Friends, that shall be living as my Execu- 
tors, and my overseers of this my last Will and Testament, 
and they to take such Order for the Burial of my Body, as they 
shall think mete, always requiring that it may be done with as 
little pomp or vain Expences of the World, as may be, being 
persuaded that there is no more vain Expences than that in 
a convenient Tombe or Monument I wish there should be. 
And, for the Place where my Body should lye, it is hard to 
appoint, and I know not how convenient it is to desire it ; but 
I have always whised, as my dear Wife doth know, and some 
of my friends, that it might be at Warwick, where sundry of 
my Ancestors doe lye, either so, or else where the Queens 
Majesty shall command, for as it was when it had Life, a most 
faithfull, true loving Servant unto her, so living and so dead 
let the Body be at her gracious Determination, if it shall so 
please her. Touching my Bequests, they cannot be great, by 
Reason my Ability and Power is little, for I have not dissembled 


with the World my Estate, but have lived always above any 
Living that I had (for which I am heartily sorry) least that, 
thro' my many debts, from Time to Time, some Men have taken 
Loss by me. My Desire therefore is, and I do charge my 
Executors to have due Consideration, that if any Person shall 
justly after my Decease make such Complaint, that they may 
be satisfied as far as shall be found in any Equity it is due 
to them, with Advantage to them beside. I do here appoint 
my most dear, well beloved Wife, the Countess of Leicester, to 
be my sole Executrix of this my last Will and Testament ; and 
do require her, for all Love between us, that she will not only 
be content to take it upon her, but also to see it faithfully 
and carefully performed. And although, albeit there may many 
Imperfections be found with the making this Will, for that I 
am no Lawyer, nor have any Councel now with me to place 
things in such Forme as some are able ; yet as my true Meaning 
is I trust to express, that accordingly it may be interpreted, 
for I mean to make it as plain as I can. And first of all, before 
and above all Persons, it is my duty to remember my most 
dear, and most gracious Sovereign, whose Creature under God 
I have been, and who hath been a most bountiful, and most 
princely Mistress unto me, as well in advancing me to many 
Honours, as in maintaining me many Ways by her Goodness 
and Liberality. And as my best Recompence to her most excel- 
lent Majesty can be from so mean a Man, chiefly in Prayer to 
God, so whilst there was any Breath in this Body, I never failed 
it, even as for mine own Soul. And as it was my greatest Joy, 
in my Life Time, to serve her to her Contentation, so it is not 
unwelcome to me, being the Will of God to dye, and end this 
Life for her Service. And yet, albeit I am not able to make 
any Piece of Recompence of her great Goodness, yet will I 
presume to present unto her a token of an humble, faithfull 
heart, as the least that ever I can send her, and with this 
Prayer withall, that it may please the Almighty God, not only 
to make her the oldest Prince, that he ever gave over England, 
but to make her the Godliest, the Virtuest, and the Worthiest 
in his Sight, that he ever gave over any Nation. That she may 
indeed be a blessed Mother and Nurse to this People, and 



Church of England, which the Almighty God grant for his 
Christ's Sake. The Token I do bequeath unto her Majesty, is 
the Jewel with three great Emrodes with a fair large Table 
Diamond in the Middest, without a Foyle, and set about with 
many Diamonds without Foyle, and a Roap of fayre white Pearl, 
to the Number six hundred, to hang the said Jewel at ; which 
Pearl and Jewel, was once purposed for her Majesty, against 
a Coming to Wansted, but it must now thus be disposed, which 
I do pray you, my dear Wife see performed, and delivered to 
some of those whom I shall hereafter nominate and appoint to 
be Overseers for her Majesty. 

Next to her Majesty I will now return to my dear Wife, 
and set down that for her, which cannot be so well as I would 
wish it, but shall be as well as I am able to make it, having 
always found her a faithfull, loving and a very obedient, carefull 
Wife ; and so do I trust this Will of mine shall find her no 
less mindfull of me being gone, then I was always of her being 
alive. I do give and bequeath to my said dear Wife, over and 
beside the Jointure I have made her, the Lease of Drayton 
Basset, freely to give and dispose at her Will. Item. There 
be certain parcels of Grounds, which I bought of the Earl 
of Oxford, being sometime belonged to the House of Cram- 
brooke, and I reserved purposely to be joined to the Park of 
Wansted, as also the Parcel of Ground, called Watermans, 
which I bought of the L. of Buckhurst; both which I do also 
freely give and grant to my said Wife forever, with the Manner 
of Wansted, already assured unto her. Item. I do give to my 
said Wife, during her Life, all other Lands and Tenements, 
which I did purchase in the Lordship of Wansted, beside that 
is passed by Deed, with the House and Manner, to her before, 
And because I do give the House and Land of Aldersbroock, 
which I bought of Fuller the lawyer to my base Son Robert 
Dudley, I do desire and pray my said dear Wife, that she will 
be pleased to give him also the great Pond before the Door of 
the said House, being Parcel of the Manner of Wansted. Which 
House and Lands of Aldersbrook I do also grant unto my said 
Wife, till my said base Son shall accomplish the Age of twenty 
Yeares. Item. I do give unto my said dear Wife all my Goods 


and Leases whatsoever, toward the payment of me Debts, and 
her better Maintenance, saving such as I shall hereafter, in this 
my Will, limit and sett down for other Uses. Item. For that 
there is sixteen-thousand Pounds, due by me, to the Merchants 
of London, upon Mortgage of the Lordships of Denbigh, and 
others, and that neither my Leases, nor Goods, able to redeem 
them, and to pay other my Debts; I do give Power and Authority, 
by this my last Will, to such as I have made Assurance already, 
for the same Purpose, as if they want Power and Authority by 
any such former Act. I do give all power and Authority, that 
is possible for me to give, either to my Executrix and my Over- 
seers, jointly together, or such of them as shall be living, to 
sell all my Lands and Leases, with the Parsonage of Warrington, 
which I have in Lancashire, and were sometimes the Lands of 
Sir Thomas Butler Knt. and Edward Butler Esq., his son. All 
which Lands and Leases I do will in any wise to be sold for 
the Redemption of the Lordships of Denbigh, and Chirk, and 
the overplus thereof, to go toward the Payment of my other 
Debts, for the better Ease and Relief of my Executrix, and for 
that the said Lands of Butlers, were intended at the first, by 
the said Butler, to be given to my said base Son, Robert, I do 
in Liew thereof give unto him the said Lordships of Denbighe 
and Chirke, etc. but after the Death of my dear Lord, and 
Brother, the Earl of Warwick, to whom, with all other my 
Lands, during his Life, I do give and bequeath, saving such as 
I have already granted to my said dear Wife, in Joynture or 
shall grant unto her, by this my last Will and Testament. The 
Castle of Kenilworthe, I do likewise give unto my said Brother, 
with all the Parks, Chases and Lands, during his Life, and the 
Park and Paddock of Rudfine only excepted, which I always 
gave unto my Wife during her Life, the Timber Woods of all which 
I do reserve from any Waste (Reparations necessary excepted) 
or if it shall please my Lord and Brother to build out the 
Gallery which I once intended, then to take such Timber as 
shall be convenient for the same. Item. I do will and give 
all such Stuff and Implements of Household, as I have heretofore 
stored the said Castle with, all to remain to the said Castle 
and House, and not to be altered or removed. I do also give 


two Garnish of silver Vessells to remain, as the rest, to the 
said Castle, with two Basons and Ewers of silver gilt, with 
other Plate for a Cupboard, to the value of two hundreth 
Pounds, over and ahove the former Parcells of Vessell and 
Basons and Ewers. Item. I do give and grant, hy this my 
Will, the said Castle and Lands belonging to the said Castle, 
and which I have purchased to the same. Also, after the 
decease of my Lord and Brother, to my base Son Robert Dudley, 
as also the free Farm of Rudfyne, I do give also to my dear 
Wife my House and Mannor of Langley, with all the Appurten- 
ances, and the Use of all the Coppice Woods there, with the 
Lease of Whitney, until my said base Son accomplish the Years 
of one and twenty ; both which, after, I do give and grant to 
Robert, my base Son, in such sort as shall be limited unto him, 
with the rest of the Lands I give him. If he dye before the 
said one and twenty Year, then my said Wife to enjoy the said 
Lands and Leases during her Life. I give him also the leases 
of Grafton Pasture, after the decease of my said Wife. I doe 
also desire my good Lord and Brother, the Lands aforesaid 
coming to his hands, that it will please him to give some 
reasonable Stipend to the Boy, when he comes to more years, 
for his Maintenance. In the meantime, after the Decease of 
Gabriel Bleke, and his Wife, I do give and grant to the said 
Robert, all such Lands and Leases, as I have conveyed unto 
me from the said Gabriel forever ; and the same Lands, Houses 
and Leases, to enjoy presently after the Decease of the said 
Gabriel Bleke and his Wife now living. I do give and grant 
to my said base Son, also, after the Decease of my dear wife, 
the Manners of Balsoll, and Long Itchington, in the Countye 
of Warwick, with all Appurtenances. I do likewise give and 
grant to my said base Son, the Manners of Cleobury and 
Eurnewood, after the Decease also of my said dear Wife. The 
Moyety of such Lands as teas recovered from the Lord Berkely, 
I do leave unbestwowed ; but to be imploied ~by my Lord and 
Brother upon such our next heirs (for that it came by Descent) 
as he shall find living with him, Sir Eobert Sydney if he live 
to it. And for all those things which I have granted, whereof 
my dear Wife hath Interest, either during her Life, or otherwise, 


if any mine Heirs or Assigns, shall go about to molest or disturb 
her Estate, and shall molest and any way disturb her from any 
such Estate, granted to her either by Deed or Will from me 
that immediately it shall be lawfull for her, during her Life, 
to enter and seize upon the Lands, that any such Disturber 
shall presently hold or enjoy from me, whatsoever it shall be. 
Item. If the Lands which was Butlers in Lancashire, cannot 
be sold in sort to pay and redeem the Mortgage of Denbigh 
and Chirk, and to make six or seven Pounds more, at the least, 
toward my other Debts ; then it is my Will, that my Overseers 
shall, and my Executrix also, joyn with them, if so it be need- 
full to bargain and sell all those Lordships of Denbigh and 
Chirk, and to make the most of it, and the Overplus to go to 
the Payment of my other Debts. And then I do give and grant 
by this Will, all the Lands and Leases in Lancashire, to my 
sayd Robert my base Son for ever. And for that there is certain 
of my Lands charged with Rents and Tenths to her Majesty, 
and that I have certain free Rents in Wales to as great Value 
or more my humble Request to her Highness, is, that it may 
please her to discharge those Rents from my other Lands, and 
to receive the other Rents in Wales for the same, which is no 
less to her Majesty at all, but as certain as the other. And 
where my base Son is young and casual, whether these my 
Gifts shall come unto him or no, if he dye before he is one and 
twenty Years old, unmarried and without Child, then, if my 
Lord and Brother be living, I shall require him to dispose of 
all those Lands, leaving them unto him as my right and lawfull 
Heir. Save only, that if my said base Son Robert should dye 
without Issue, and that the Mannor of Denbigh and Chirk be 
redeemed, I do give and bequeath forever the Lordship of Chirk, 
to my well-beloved Son in Law the Earl of Essex, as also my 
House in London called Leicester House ; if the said Robert, 
my base Son dye without Issue to whom I give and grant as 
other the former Lands, after the Decease of my dear Wife, 
the said House, and the remainder, if he dye without Issue, to 
my said Lord the Earl of Essex my Son in Law, and the Heirs 
of his Body lawfully begotten. And where in one Article before 
touching my purchased Lands in Waiisted, I left my said Lands 


undisposed, but during the Life of my said wife ; I do hereby, 
also, give and grant those purchased Lands, not passed unto 
her by Deed before, or not inclosed within the Park of Wansted, 
to Robert, my base Son during his Life, and the Heirs of his 
Body, if he have any lawfully begotten ; otherwise if he dye 
without Issue, I do give and grant those Lands purchased in 
Wansted to the Lord of Wansted, being any of the Heirs of the 
Body of my said dear Wife, forever. Etc. 


Dudley marries Lady Frances Vavasour. 

Dalla citata filza 4185 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Exemplar verum ex lingua Anglicana in Latinam versa lite- 
rarum testimonialium contractus matrimonialis habiti inter Do- 
minum Robertum Dudley et Franciscam Vavasor. 

Ego Edouardus Barker causarum Ecclesiasticarum suse Maje- 
statis Registrarius ac Notarius publicus, omnibus per presens 
scriptum testimonium facio : Quod per commissionem specialem 
a Johanne Archiepiscopo Cantauriensi, quidam testes bonse exti- 
mationis, nominatim Capitaneus Thomas Jobson de Colchester 
in comitatu, Essexise armiger et Thomas Combley de London 
generosus, testes honestse famse, fuerunt iuxta ordinariam et 
legitimam procedendi formam, coram me ad perpetuam rei rne- 
moriam examinati, sicut per eorum examinationes in custodia 
mea remanentes apparet, Quse ad hunc effectum testificant : 
Quod honorabilis Robertus Dudley de Kenelworth, fuit per verba 
de presenti et mutuum consensum legitime contractus Dominse 
Franciscse Vavasor tune Regise Majestati et honorariis precipuis 
unse, utraque parte ab omni alio contractu matrimoniali libera 
existente : Et quod dictus contractus matrimonialis inter dictas 
partes habitus fuit in Pallatio regio de Grenwich circa annum 


Domini millesimum quingentesimum nonagesimum primum, sed 
non publice solemnizatus, saltern ad alterius ipsorum notitiam. 
In quorum fideni hoc presens scriptum, prsemissa testificans 
manu mea subscripsi. 

Datum Londini, tertia die Noveinbris Anno Domini 1592. 


Guillelmus Auberie legum doctor Almse Curise Cant, de Ar- 
cubus London officialis principals, universis et singulis, per pre- 
sentes noticiam ducimus et testamur has literas testimoniales 
esse scriptas per Edwardum Barker Registrarium et Notarium 
probum fidelem et legalem, et adhiberi fidem. In cuius rei te- 
stimonium sigillum curise officialis de Arcubus apponi fecimus. 

Datum Londini, 6 Die Novembris Anno Domini 1592. 


Correspondence between King James VI of Scot- 
land and Queen Elizabeth : Super Destructione 
Armatce (vocatae Invincibilis) Hispanicce. 

Littera Jacob! Regis Scotorum ad Elizabethara Reginam gratulatoria. 

Madame and derrest Sister. 

In tymes of Strattis trewe Frendis are best tryit. Now 
meritis he thankes of you and your Countrey, who kithis him- 
self a Freind to yor Countrey and Estate, and so this tyme 
must move me to utter my Zele to the Religion, and how neir 
a Kinsman and Neighbor I find myself to yow and yor Coun- 
trey For this effect then have I sent yow this present heirby 
to offer unto yow my Forces, my Person, and all that I may 


comand, to be imployit against Strangers in whatsumever facion, 
and by quhatsumever meane as may best serve for the defence 
of your Countrey, wherein I promis to behave myself not as 
a stranger and forein Prince, bot as your naturall son, and 
Compatriot of yor Countrey in all respectis, now, Madame, to 
conclude as on the one part, I must hartlie thank yow for 
yor honorable begyning by yor Ambassadors in Offres for my 
satisfaction, so, on the other part, I pray yow to send present- 
lie down Commissioners for the perfyting of the same, quhilk 
I protest I desyre not for that I would have the Reward to 
preceid the Desertis, bot onlye that I with Honor, and all my 
guid Subjects with a fervent gud will, may imbrace this yor 
godlie and honest Cause, wharby yor Adversaries may have ado 
not with England but with the whole He of Britayne ; 

Thus praying yow to dispeche all your Matters with all pos- 
sible speed, and wishing you a successe convenient to those 
that ar invadit by Goddis professed Enemies, I commit, Madame 
and dearest Sister, your person Estate and Countrey to the 
blessed Protection of the Almightye. 

From Edinburgh the fourt of August 1588 your most loving 
and affectionat Brother and Cousing as tyme shall now trye 


Reginae Responsio ad Literas prsedietas. 

Now may appeare, my deare Brother, how Malyce joyned with 
Might stryves to make a shamfull end to a vyllanus begyning. 
For, by Goddes singular Favour, having theyr Fleet weell beaten 
in our narrow Seas, and preparing with all Vyolence to atcheeve 
some Watering place to continew their pretended Invasions, the 
Windes have caried them to yor Costes, where I doubt not they 
shall receave small succour and lesse Welcom, unles those Lordes, 
that so traiterouslyke would burye theyr own Prince, and promeis 
an other Kyng Releef in yor name, be suffered to lyve at lybertye 
to dishonor youe Peryll and advance some other (which God 
forbyd youe suffer them lyve to do) therefore I send you this 
gentleman, a rare Tongue Man and wyse, to declare unto you 


my full opynion in this great Cause, as one that never wyll abuse 
you to serve any own turn, nor wyll you do ought that myself 
would not performe if I were in youre place ; Yowe may assure your 
self that, for my part, I doubt no whit but that all this tyrannicall 
prowd and brainsyck Attempt will be the begyninge, though not 
the end, of the Kuyn of that King, that most unkingly, even in 
the midst of treating Peace begynnes this wrongfull Warr, he 
hathe procured my greatest Glory that ment my sorist Wrack, 
and hathe so dymmed the Light of his Sonneshyne, that who 
hath a wyll to obtayne Shame, let them keepe his Forces Com- 
panye ; 

But for all thys, for your best sake, let not the frendes of 
Spayne be suffered to yeld them Force, for although I feare not 
in the end the sequel, yet, if by having them unhelped you may 
increase the English Hartes unto you, you shall not do the 
worst Deede for your behalf; for if ought should be donne, your 
excuse will playe the Boyteux if yow make not worke with the 
lykely Men to do it, looke well unto it, I beseache yow, the 
necessity of this matter makes my scrybleing the more speedy, 
hoping yow will measure my good affection with the right bal- 
lance of my actions, which to yow shall be ever suche as I have 
professed, not doubting of the recyprocque of your behalf ac- 
cording as my last Messenger unto you hath at large sygnyfied, 
for the which I render you a myllion of gratefull Thankes, 
togither for the last general Prohybition to your Subjects not 
to foster or ayde our generall Foes of which I doubt not the 
Observations if the Ringleaders be safe in your handes, as 
knoweth God, who ever have you in his blessed keeping, with 
many happy yeares of 

Yor most assured loving Sister and Coosin 


Copied scrupulously by me from Eymer Fcedera, Tom. XVI, P. P., 
18 and 19. J. T. L. 




Dudley imprisoned with the Earl of Essex 1602. 

Da una lettera di Londra del Febbraio 1601 (ossia 1602 allo stile comune). 

Di Londra con lettere delli 22 passato avvisano che in Lon- 
dra et in Corte erano accadute alquante alienationi per conto 
del Milor d' Essex, il quale essendo stato alquanto tempo seque- 
strate per comandamento della Regina nella sua casa in Lon- 
dra, et rimesso dipoi nella pristina liberta, haveva continuato 
verso la Regina a sollecitare di voler haver giustitia et ragione 
del Lord Cial, sopra 1' ingiuria che pretendeva essergli fatta da 
detto Cial. Onde non movendosi la Regina a sue preghiere et 
sollicitationi, ma rimettendo il negotio alia deeisione del Parla- 
mento, il detto Conte d' Essex haveva intrapreso di fame ven- 
detta per se stesso et con 1' aiuto de' suoi amici. II che inteso 
dalla Regina, haveva espressamente et sotto pena fatto dire a 
detto Conte di non muoversi in punto alcuno, et di non ammet- 
ter nella sua compagnia passando cammino overo andando in 
Corte phi de 80 gentilhuomini et servitori. Ma non ostante que- 
sto comandamento haveva detto Conte adunato insino a 1100 
huomini, con i quali disegnava di ritrovarsi in Londra et in 
Corte. Onde la Regina avvertita di quella temerita, fece con 
quelli della sua guardia separar dette genti adunate, et fecero 
pregione il predetto Conte di Essex con li signori Dudley, Blount 
et alquanti altri che erano partigiani di detto Conte, Ma insin 
hora non s' e potuta sapere la causa di tale alteratione, et se- 
condo 1' ordinario delle genti e cosa nuovamente et straordina- 
riamente avvenuta, parlandosi diversamente di questo fra alcuni 
con dirsi, che il romore fusse che detto Conte havesse qualche 
pratica col Re di Scotia, et altri, con altri disegni. 



Signor Lotti respecting Dudley's Lawsuit. 

Dalla citata filza 4188, altro inserto del Lotti alia Segreteria. 

Maggio 1G07. 
(Tutto in cifra.) 

L'ultime mie lettere a V.A. sono state de'9 col passato or- 
dinario, et ragguagliavo 1' Altezza Vostra, come quel tale Capitano 
di nave a chi era indiritto un piego di lettere attenenti al Conte 
di Varuic era partito per cotesta volta, et che per conto di quelle 
provanze aspetterei il ritorno di lui, che degli affari qua del 
Conte debba portare informazione migliore. Mi dicono i Burla- 
macchi et Calandrini mercanti in grandissima confidenza, che 
trattano per il detto Conte di fare la compra di quella nave, 
della quala mandava V. A. le noti (sic) attenenti a un cavalier 
Femes, et si tratta ancora di fare certo partito de' beni di esso 
Conte, con apparenza di cavar di qua 12 o 14 mila lire sterline 
et condurle costa, ma in questi negozii vanno circonspettissimi, 

et cosa veruna si avanza senza il ritorno di detto Capitano 

Quella informazione che ho potuto io destramente raccorre in- 
torno alle cose del prefato Conte, quello ragguagliero a V. A. 
Et vien detto che al signor Ruberto Dudlei, et alia signora 
Ceffilt sua madre, sia stato fatto gran torto, perche effettiva- 
mente vogliono che fra questo et il Conte di Lester fusse parola 
di matrimonio, et che il signor Ruberto dovesse nascer legittimo. 
Pero il Conte di Lester dovette maritarsi poi con altra donna, 
et chiamare anche nel suo testamento il signor Ruberto non le- 
gittimo, et tale comunemente e egli reputato in questo Regno, 
et escluso pero dalla Contea, maravigliandosi qua chiunque sente 
che in Italia si facci egli chiamare Conte di Varuich. Poco avanti 
la sua partenza vogliono che fusse fmtione, ma chiamo il signor 
Roberto prefato in giudizio un huomo di questo paese, et si que- 
relo di lui che 1' havesse chiamato bastardo, et per farlo con- 


dennare, si messe con testimonii a voler provare il contrario, et 
facilmente i suoi avversarii vista la conseguenza, che di si fatta 
pubblicatione et giuditio ne poteva nascere in danno loro per 
quello che hebbero se il (detto) Ruberto fusse dichiarato legit- 
timo, dovettero operate si, che nella Corte medesima dove fu 
intentata questa attione venissero condennati et multati detti 
testimonii come subornati, et il procuratore della causa et il 
signer Ruberto medesimo, il quale per questa cagione princi- 
palmente vogliono che partisse, et facilmente si procedera contro 
i beni di lui per essecutione di quella sentenza. Ha detto signer 
Roberto havuta una moglie figliuola d' uno cavaliere Candicci 
(Cavendish), et di lei, figliuoli, ma tutti morti. Rimasto vedovo si 
rimarito con la figliuola d' un cavaliere, con la quale vive presen- 
temente, et di lei ha figliuoli maschi et femmine, et s'intende 
che detta signora sia stata chiamata avanti al supremo tribunale, 
et che quivi sia stato provato et dichiarato per via di testimonii 
di nobilissimo sangue ad perpetuam rei memoriam et senza ec- 
cettione il matrimonio tra lei et il signor Ruberto, legittimo, et 
i figliuoli legittimi et naturali, senza impedimento veruno alia 
successione de' beni paterni. Quella Dama, che vive seco in Ita- 
lia deve essere nipote del signor Ammiraglio d' Inghilterra, come 
figliuola d' una sua figliuola ; et la madre del signor Ruberto 
debbe essere sorella del detto Ammiraglio, di maniera che e 
certissimo che fra detta Dama et il signor Ruberto sarebbe 
grado tale di parentela, che non ammetterebbe matrimonio senza 
dispensa, et questo e il ragguaglio che io posso darne alPAltezza 
Vostra, alia quale in quel modo che resti servita obbediro io 
con quella prontezza et fedelta che debbo, perche il piego di 
lettere che si e detto di sopra era raccomandato, come per no- 
titia della persona a chi era indiritto, a detti mercanti Burla- 
macchi et Calandrini. Per questa via la signora Ceffilta saputo 
di dette lettere et pensando che ve ne potessero essere per lei 
ha mostrato voglia di parlar meco, et essendosi tanto ralegrata 
che il Conte di Varuich suo figliuolo, cosi chiamato da lei, hab- 
bia trovato cosi felice riscontro della protettione et gratia di 
Vostra Altezza, offerse la sua possibilita, come gia obligata al 
servizio di Vostra Altezza, et ricerco da me particolarmente 
che io dovesse fare humilissimo baciamano in suo nome a Ma- 


dama Serenissima, per rinfrescar la memoria della servitu che 
teneva con Sua Altezza in Francia per conto del matrimonio. 
Questa signora non ragiono punto, ma per terza persona ho bene 
inteso che ella riceva grandissimo dispiacere che il suo figliuolo 
dica d' essere ammogliato in Italia, ma nelle altre cose e amato 
da lei come 1' anima propria. 



The Patent for creating Alice Lady Dudley 
a Duchess of England. 

See DUGD ALE'S Baronage, vol. II, p. 225, and the Note in the margin, which 
says that he copied it from the original in the possession of Catharine 
Lady Levison, 1670. 

Charles, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. To all Arch- 
bishops, Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, Bishops, Barons, 
Knights and all other our loving subjects, to whom these our 
Letters shall come, greeting. Whereas in or about the begin- 
ning of the Reign of our dear father King James, of famous 
memory, there was a sute commenced, in our high Court of 
Star Chamber, against Sir Robert Dudley, Knight, and others, 
for pretending himself to be lawfull heir to the honours and 
lands of the Earldoms of Warwick and Leicester, as son and 
heir of the body of Robert Late Earl of Leicester, lawfully 
begotten upon the Lady Douglasse his mother, wife to the late 
Earl of Leicester, and all proceedings stayed in the Ecclesiastical 
Courts, in which the said sute depended, for proof of his legi- 
timation : yet nevertheless did the said Court vouchsafe liberty 
to the said Sir Robert, to examine witnesses in the said Court 
of Star Chamber, in order to the making good of his legitimacy ; 
divers witnesses were examined there accordingly. Whereupon, 


by full testimony upon oath, partly made by the said Lady 
Douglasse herself, and partly made by divers other persons of 
quality and credit, who were present at the marriage with the 
said late Earl of Leicester, by a lawfull Minister, according to 
the form of Matrimony then by law established in the Church 
of England ; and the said Sir Robert and his mother were owned 
by the said late Earl of Leicester as his lawfull wife and son, 
as by many of the said depositions remaining upon record, in 
our said Court, still appear, which we have caused to be perused, 
for our better satisfation herein. But a special order being 
made, that the said depositions should be seal'd up and no 
copies thereof taken without leave, did cause him, the said Sir 
Robert, to leave this our kingdom; whereof his adversaries taking 
advantages procured a special Privy-seal to be sent unto him, 
commanding his return into England ; which he not obeying 
(because his honour and lands were denied unto him), all his 
lands were therefore seiz'd on to the King our father's use. 

And not long afterwards, Prince Henry (our dear brother 
deceas'd) made overture to the said Sir Robert, by special in- 
struments, to obtain his title by purchase of and in Kenilworth 
Castle, in our county of Warwick, and his manners, parks, and 
chases belonging to the same ; which, upon a great undervalue, 
amounted (as we are credibly informed) to about fifty thousand 
pounds; but were bought by the Prince our brother in consi- 
deration of fourteen thousand five hundred pounds, and upon 
his faithful engagement and promise of his princely favour unto 
the said Sir Robert in the said cause, to restore him both in 
honours and fortunes. And thereupon certain deeds were seal'd 
in the ninth year of the reign of our said father, and fines also 
were then levyed, setling the inheritance thereof in the said 
Prince our brother, and his heirs. 

But, the said Prince our brother departing this life, there 
was not above three thousand pounds of the said sum of four- 
teen thousand five hundred pounds ever paid (if any at all) to 
the said Sir Robert's hands ; and we ourselves, as heir to the 
said Prince our brother, came to the possession thereof. 

And it appearing to our Council, that the said Alice Lady 
Dudley, wife of the said Sir Robert, had an estate of inheritance 


of and in the same descendable unto her posterity ; in the 
nineteenth year of our said dear father's reign, an Act of Par- 
liament was passed to enable the said Lady Alice, wife to the 
said Sir Robert, to alien her estate, 1 which she had by the said 
Sir Robert therein, from her children by the said Sir Robert, 
as if she had been a feme sole, which accordingly she did in 
the nineteenth year of our said father's reign, in consideration 
of four thousand pounds, and further payments yearly to be 
made by us to her, out of our Exchequer, and out of the said 
castles and lands ; which have not been accordingly paid unto 
her by us for many years, to the damage of the said Lady 
Alice, and her children, to a very great extent. 

Which Sir Robert settling himself in Italy, within the ter- 
ritories of the Great Duke of Tuscany (from whom he had 
extraordinary esteem), he was so much favoured by the Emperor 
Ferdinand the II, as that being a person, not only eminent for 
his great learning and blood, but for sundry rare endowments 
(as was best known), he had, by letters patents from his Im- 
perial Majesty, the title of Duke given unto him ; to be used 
by himself and his heirs for ever, throughout all the dominions 
of the sacred Empire. Which letters patents have been perused 
by our late Earl-Marshal and Heralds. 

And whereas our dear father, not knowing the truth of the 
lawful birth of the said Sir Robert (as we piously believe), 
granted away the titles of the said Earldoms to others, 2 which 
we now hold not fit to call in question, nor ravel into our 
deceased father's actions ; especially they having been so long 
enjoyed by these families, to whom the honours were granted 
(which we do not intend to alter). And yet, we having a very 

1 The wife of Sir Kobert Dudley had her jointure settled and secured 
to her upon woods of Kenilworth, as at that time existing. 

2 To the son of Mary Dudley, sister of Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, 
and Kobert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. This Mary married Sir Henry Sid- 
ney, K. G. of Penshiirst. and Robert, their second son (the eldest Sir Philip 
having been killed at Zutphen), was created Baron Sidney in 1603, Viscount 
de L'Isle in 1605, and Earl of Leicester in 1618. The Title became extinct 
in this family in 1743. This first Earl of Leicester, of Penshurst, joined 
Letitia Dowager Countess of Leicester in prosecuting Sir Robert Dudley and 
the others before named for conspiracy. 


deep sense of the great injuries done to the said Sir Robert 
Dudley, and the Lady Alice Dudley, and their children ; and 
that we are of opinion, that in justice and equity these possessions 
so taken from them do rightly belong unto them, or full sa- 
tisfaction for the same ; and holding ourselves in honour and 
conscience obliged to make them reparation now, as far as our 
present ability will enable us ; and also taking into our consi- 
deration the said great estate, which she the said Lady Alice 
Dudley had in Kenilworth, and sold at our desire to us at a 
very great undervalue, and yet not perform'd or satisfied, to 
many thousand pounds damage. 

And we also casting our princely eye upon the faithful ser- 
vices done unto us by Sir Richard Leveson, 1 Knight of the Bath, 
who hath married the Lady Katherine, one of the daughters of 
the said Duke, by his said wife, the said Lady Alice Dudley ; 
and also the great services which Robert Holburne, Esq., hath 
done to us, by his learned pen and otherwise (which said Robert 
Holburne hath married the Lady Anne, one other of the daugh- 
ters of the said Duke, by his said wife, the Lady Alice Dudley). 

We have conceived ourselves bound in honour and conscience, 
to give the said Lady Alice and her children such honour and 
precedencies, as is, or are due to them in marriage or blood. 
And therefore we do not only give and grant, unto the said 
Lady Alice Dudley, the title of Duchess Dudley for her life, in 
England and other our realms and dominions with such prece- 
dencies as she might have had, if she had lived in the dominions 
of the sacred empire (as a mark of our favour unto her, and 
out of our Prerogative Royal, which we will not have drawn 
into dispute) ; but we do also further grant unto the said Lady 
Katherine, and Lady Anne, her daughters, the places, titles, and 
precedencies of the said Duke's daughters, as from that time 
of their said father's creation, during their respective lives, not 
only in England, but in all other our kingdoms and dominions, 
as a testimony of our princely favour and grace unto them; 
conceiving ourselves oblig'd to do much more for them, if it 
were in our power, in these unhappy times of distraction. 

1 Of Trentham. 


And we require all persons of honour, and other our loving 
subjects, especially our Earl Marshall, Heralds, and Officers at 
Arms, to take notice of this our princely pleasure, and to govern 
themselves accordingly ; and to cause the said places and pre- 
cedencies to be quietly enjoyed, according to this our gracious 
intention, as they do tender our displeasures, and will answer 
the contempt thereof at their perils. And we further command 
and require, that our said Heralds do make entry of this our 
pleasure and grant in their offices accordingly. In witness 
whereof we have caused these our Letters to be made Patent. 
Witness Ourself at Oxford, the three and twentieth day of May, 
in the twentieth year of our reign. 


The Queen Consort^ is angry with Dudley. 

Dalla filza 4187 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Inserto del Residente Lotti alia Segreteria. 

Da Londra, de' 13 di Luglio 1605. 
Le parole di corsivo sono in cifra nel dispaccio e qui spiegate. 


La Regina si trovava alterata perche un Cavaliere maritato 
Roberto Dudley, che dicono sia naturale del Conte di Lester la 
sera avanti haveva menato via una fanciulla Dama, della quale 
era innamorato, et si son subito dati grandi ordini, ma pero npn 
se ne sente nuova. Questo gentilhuomo e di eta di 35 anni in circa, 
di giusta statura et di barba bionda, et molto gentile in apparenza. 
Mi ha sollevato un grave scandalo con questo fatto. Doppo qiieste 
ragioni mi ha sollevato grave scandalo con questo fatto. 
Da altro inserto de'20 di Luglio 1605 del medesimo Lotti. 

1 Anne of Denmark, wife of James 1st. 



La Dama di Corte nipote del signer Grande Ammiraglio, 
che si diceva essersi fuggita con il Cavalier Kuberto Dudley 
bastardo del Conte di Lester, anch' egli nepote del prefato si- 
gnor Ammiraglio, e stata fermata in Gales dal signor Governa- 
tore di quella piazza ; essendoche le speditioni di qua v' arrivas- 
sero quasi in un tempo. Et perche si scuopre che Ella facesse 
questa risolutione non per innamoramento, ma per rinchiudersi 
in un munistero, et servire a Dio nella vera religione, non si sa 
se i Franzesi permetteranno che Ella sia ricondotta qua forza- 
tamente, anzi si pensa che quanto prima sien per lasciarla ese- 
quire la sua santa inspiratione. 


King James' wrath. 

Dalla filza 4188 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Lettera del Lotti Residenie pel Granduca in Inghilterra al Segretario Cioli. 

Londra, 1 Febbraio 1606 (stile comune). 


Intendo che il Re parla come disgustatissimo del Cavaliere 
Ruberto Dudley, et questo le sarebbe che Principe veruno lo rice- 
vesse, et qua si e detto che Vostra Alte^a fussi per servirsene. 
La principal cagione e che Sua Maesta non vorrebbe sudditi Cat- 
tolici et tanto meno quanto piu valor osi et di merit o. 



Letter from Antonio Standen, English spy, 
concerning Dudley s antecedents. 

Dalla filza 933 (nuova mimerazione). Archivio Mediceo, a pag. 494. 

(Direzione). Al molto Illustre sig. JBelisario Vinta Cavaliere di San Stefano 
mio Signore Ossevv. m Livorno. 

Molto Illustre Sig. r Mio Osserv." 10 

Ho ricevuto quella amorevolissima di Y.S., di che infinita- 
mente ne la ringratio vedendo la memoria, che di me V. S. si 
degna tenere. Delle cose di questo mondo posso assicurare V. S. 
che ne tengo poco conto ; pure ricordevole delle gratie et favori 
del mio gia amorevolissimo Gran Duca Francesco, non posso 
ni devo, si no ingegnarmi a tutto potere servire et aggradire 
a quella Serenissima casa. 

Questo, Signore mio caro, dico per conto di un caso accaduto 
qua, poco fa, ed e un matrimonio falso fra il Conte di Varuiche 
et una gentildonna fanciulla, figliuola lei di una figlia delFAl- 
miraglio d' Inghilterra, et a questo Cavaliere cugina in terzo 
grado. Hora questo Cavaliere ha moglie in Inghilterra, di casa 
nobilissima, et non men bella : sono stati insieme parecchi anni, 
et hanno tre figliuoli. Questa signora havendo inteso la partenza 
di questi ; et presentendo che il marito havra detto che prima 
di essersi congiunto con lei, havere conchiuso matrimonio con 
la gia moglie del Cavaliere Tomaso Cierle poco fa venuto di 
Turchia; la onde pretende detto Conte essere libero per la morte 
della prima sciagurata, et senza pruova legitima di questo primo 
contratto, abandona la seconda, et piglia questa terza, con li- 
cenza di pigliarla per via di dispensa Papale, solo per conto 
della prossimita di sangue, non gia sapendo il Papa li intrighi 
antecedenti. La onde e seguito il scandalo che a V. S. diro. II 
Re d' Inghilterra e stato informato del negotio, et F Ambascia- 


tore suo residente in Francia, s' e dolsuto in maniera si sconcia 
col Cardinal Barberino, che ne son seguite male parole, si del 
Pontefice, come della sedia Apostolica, come da Eretici non si 
puo aspetar mai altro. II Papa ha dichiarato la intention sua 
retta, et del tutto n' ha ampiamente informato il Cardinale; et 
se 1'interessati non sono incaminati direttamente, a danno loro : 
et il fine ha di essere, che dove Sua Santita intendera, che que- 
sta infelice coppia si fermeranno, di mandare al Vescovo di quel 
luogo una bella separatione, a tale che, et lui et lei sono rui- 
nati ; maggiormente quella povera donna, perche tutti li Ministri 
del Re 1' hanno a tribulare dovunque capiteranno, si per questa 
causa, come altresi per 1'assunto del titolo di Conte di Varuic 
in persona sua, senza consenso di Sua Maesta, levando della 
Corona Reale 40,000 W. di intrata. Di che mi e parso il dovere 
darne a V. S. notitia, accioche il Serenissimo nostro padrone 
sappia quel che passa, insieme Madama. Et quel che tanto com- 
muove il Pontefice e che ha saputo che la vera moglie ha scritto 
al marito, che si contenta di rendersi Cattolica, et menare in 
qua i tre figliuoli con essa, et vivere seco, et veramente e caso 
di molta compassione. II tutto sia detto in carita. perche in quanto 
al Cavaliere io 1' amo, et dico che il valor suo, et buone parte 
maggiormente nelle cose maritime meritano ogni preggio, et sti- 
ma ; et volesse Iddio, che questa sciagura non li fusse intrave- 
nuta. Perdoni del fastidio, et il Signore Iddio sempre la guardi 
et conservi. 

Di Roma, alii 27 di Gennaio 1607. 

Di Vostra Sig. ria Molto Illustre 

S. r Afi>o 




Dudley's letter offering himself for the 
Grand-Duke 's service. 

Segue nella citata filza 4185 anche 1' appresso relazione. 
(fuori) Conte di Varvick. 

Discours concernant I'estat de la qualite de Seigneur Robert Dudley 
Comte de Warwick et Lescester. Au Grand Due de Toscane. Reduit 
en trois chefs. 

Le premier deduira sommairement ce qui est de sa qualite 
et de hault tige de sa Maison. 

Le second fera veoir les raisons qui 1'ont tire hors d'Angle- 
terre et les pretensions qu'il y a a present. 

Le troisieme descouvrira ses intentions fondees sur la faveur 
et protection qu'il requiert et espere de Vostre Altesse Serenis- 
sime, lorsqu'il aura droict sur ce que plus que justement il pre- 
tend en Angleterre. 

Quant a ce qui est du premier poinct touchant sa qualite, 
il est tres notoire que Jehan Due de Northumberland delaissa 
apres son deces deus infans masles. L'aisne avait nom Ambroise, 
qui fust Comte de Warwick, 1'aultre puisne s'appelloit Robert, 
au quel la Comtee de Lecester eschut en partage. Ce diet Ro- 
bert fust tellement advance aulx faveur s et bonnes graces de 
la feu Rayne d'Angleterre, que son authorite fust quasi comme 
absolue, et avec ce fust esleve au grade de Grand Conestable, 
avec le quel il receust pareillement de la dicte Rayne tout sau- 
verain pouvoir dans le Royaulme, come aussy sur tous les pais 
bas, sur les quelz il fust constitue generalissime, et confirme 
en icelle charge par la dicte Reyne, et par les estats des diets 
pais bas. 

Le susnomme Robert s'allia en mariage avec la Dame Du- 
glas Haward issue de la tres illustre maison de Norfolcia, seur 
du grand Admiral a present d'Angleterre, pour lors vefve de- 


laissee de feu Mylord Sheffild, de la quelle le diet Comte de 
Lecester eust un filz diet Robert du nom de son pere, qu'est 
ce Jeune Seigneur, dont est maintenant propos. 

Quelques annees apres ce mariage le diet Comte de Lecester 
fust espris nouvellement de 1'amour de la vefve du Comte d'Es- 
sex, mere du dernier Comte d'Essex, que la feu Reine fist de- 
coller, et appuye sur sa grandeur en Angleterre, et sur la faveur 
qu'il avoit aupres de 1'oreille Royale la prist en famme, faisant 
entendre que son premier mariage avoit este nul. Toutesfois 
nature ne peust oncques demantir la verite a 1'endroict de son 
diet filz, qu'il a tousiours cheri d'une affection tendre et pater- 
nelle, et s'est comporte tousiours en son endroit, comme envers 
son filz legitime et Fa confesse tel souvantes fois avant son de- 
part de ceste vie, en presence de plusieurs Seigneurs, recognois- 
sant aussy avec regret le tort irreparable qu'il avoit de la dicte 
Dame Douglas Haward sa premiere et legitime famme, et le 
preiudice et blasme ou son depart d'avec elle, faisoit tremper 
sa reputation et 1'honneur de son filz, qu'il aduouoit et decla- 
roit estre son vray, unique et legitime filz, avec plusieurs et 
grandes protestations, le constituant en sa derniere volunte uni- 
versel heritier et successeur de tous ses biens terres domaines 
et possessions. 

Apres le decez du dicte Comte Ambroise Comte de Warwick 
son diet frere rendist le mesme devoir a nature, et morust sans 
lignee, ordonnant et establissant avant son trespas tous et un 
chacun ses tiltres et possessions sur ce jeune Seigneur son iie- 
pueu, comme filz unique et legitime de son frere, et pourtant 
seul et vray successeur de ceste maison, et au quel par droict 
de precession, doivent eschoir les tiltres unis et accoeuillis de 
la Duchee de Northumberland, la Comtee de Warwick et celle 
de Lecester. 

Ses parents et proches allies, tant du coste paternel quant 
par celuy de sa mere, ont pousse si avant leurs branches tant en 
Angleterre qu'Irlande, qu'es deux Royaulmes se trovent soixante 
deux, qui s'appellent Pairs qui luy appartiennent d'un fort proche 
parentage, entre les quelz est son frere uterin du premier lict 
de sa mere, qui gouverne la premiere et plus importante pro- 
vince du Royaulme. Son Oncle est aussi grand Admiral d'An- 


gleterre. Et cecy servira pour declarer en blot la qualite de ce 
Seigneur et la tracer non au vif, ains a gros crayons, pour en 
faire concevoir a present quelque notice a Vostre Altesse. 

Quant a ce qui concerne les raisons qui le tiennent absent 
de son pais, et ce qu'il y pretend, que nous avons mis pour 
second chef en ce discours, il plaira a Vostre Altesse 1'entendre 
qu'apres la venue et establissement du Roy en la Coronne 
d'Angleterre, ce Jeune Seigneur, du commun advis et consen- 
tement de ses parents fist requeste a Sa Majeste, que droict 
luy fusse accorde, touchant les biens et tiltres, ou il estoit ap- 
pelle par droict de succession, comme issu de legitime lict par 
le manage contracte entre* le feu Comte de Lecester son pere 
et la susditte Dame Duglas Haward sa mere. Ce fust la pre- 
miere instance qu'il fict sur ce faict, car du vivant de la feu 
Reyne bien qu'il eust beaucoup d'assurance sur la faveur, il 
n'est jamais voulu entrer en dispute pour sa legitimation, pour ne 
controverser une chose de telle consequence, dont la dispute ne 
luy pouvoit susciter que soupcon et jalousie en son droict. Sa 
Majeste ne pouvant refuser une si juste demande luy accorde 
que justice luy soit faicte. Toutesfois, comme sa faveur n'incli- 
noit aucunement sur le droict de ce Seigneur, il tasche par 
secrettes menees de detourner ailleurs la justice, mais s'estant 
en vain force a cest effect, et voyant Sa Majeste, que non obstant 
toutes les solicitations faictes au contraire privement, justice 
balangoit du coste de ce Seigneur, et caressoit desia d'un osil 
favorable sa cause, il se dteclare ouvertement partie a ce Sei- 
gneur, tant en persone aux messieurs de son Conseil, que par 
lettres de menaces a ceux de la justice. Ceste borrasque du 
Roy obscurcist tellement le doux serain de justice, qu'on ne vit 
plus ses rayons, son cours fust arreste, et la cause est demeuree 
iusques a present indecise, par 1'ostacle de Sa Majeste au grand 
tort et preiudice de ce Seigneur, mescontentement et regret de 
tous ses parents et amys et indignation des inieux avises et 
moins passiones de la Court d'Angleterre. Le Malheur doncques 
s'estant tellement coniure contre luy en son pais ou justice a les 
mains liees pour son droit, il a son dernier recours au Sainct 
Siege Apostolique, remettant sa cause plus que juste entre les 
mains de Sa Sainctete, commun pere de justice, pour avoir 


audience en la Kota de Komme, ou, comme sur le public thea- 
tre du monde il veult decharger son droict et son honeur. Sa 
requeste done est a Sa Sainctete, que selon 1'equite de sa cause 
il soit iuge, et en demeurera tres satisfaict pour son particulier, 
et oblige envers Sa Sainctete, pour luy rendre service et inter- 
ceder la divine bonte pour Elle. 

Quant a ce qui est du troisiesme chef, ayant avec la divine 
assistence atteint le dessus de ses pretensions, tous ses desseins 
sont fondez sur la faveur de Vostre Altesse Serenissime, soubs 
Fauril de la quelle son intention est d'establir icy, desirant au 
prealable d'entendre sur ce faict ce qui est du plaisir de Vostre 
Altesse, la quelle, il ne doute poinct, comme un grand Prince, 
luy appointera son humble et juste requeste, qui n'a autre but 
apres le service de Dieu que celuy de Vostre Altesse Serenis- 
rime, au quel Elle ne le trouvera inutile, si tant est que la 
preuve Luy en soit aggreable. Et a ce faict i'ay eu charge de 
Luy de vous faire entendre ce en quoy il pourroit estre digne- 
ment et utilement employe par Vostre Altesse. 

Premierement, sans deroger au merite d'aulcun, il n'est se- 
cond a aucun Capitaine de mer, qui soit en Angleterre ce jour- 
d'huy son experience admirable au faict de la navigation par 
toutes les regions de 1'univers, ne peust (si je 1'ose dire sans 
reproche) recevoir paragon. 

En second lieu il s'est estudie particulierement a cest art 
des le temps, que Page Pa rendu capable d'y pouvoir vacquer ; 
les instruments a ce faicts, la plus part de son invention et 
Industrie luy montent en frais a la somme de 7000 scudi (ecus). 

En troisieme lieu il a grande experience et practique aux 
Indes, comme ayant este luy mesme, sur les lieux, dont il co- 
gnoist tous les secrets et particularites, comme aussy par la 
communication des avis iornalliers de ces quartiers la, dont la 
feu Keyne, par sa faveur, et le grand Admiral son oncle luy 
faisoient part avec tous leurs proiects et desseins la dessus. 

4. II est admirablement verse a la charpenterie d'une navire 
de guerre, dont 1'usage n'est quiere cognu ce jourd'huy avec 
les perfections et secrets, qui la peuvent rendre tres absolue. 

5. II fera voir a Vostre Altesse par des raisons perenptoires 
et assurees par quel moyen tres-facile et sans grands frais, elle 


pourra obtenir le dessus, et se rendre bien tost seigneur absolu 
sur la mer de Levant, malgre toutes les galeres Espagnoles, 
infideles et aultres, qui voudroient entreprendre centre Vostre 
Altesse Serenissime. II pretend luy mesme d'avoir deux ou plus 
de navires pour guerroier les infideles et trafncquer en telles 
marchandises et regions du monde, que 1'occasion et proffit luy 

La reputation doncques de ce seigneur joincte a son scavoir 
et merite, avec le hault tige de sa maison, attirera a soy tous 
les meilleurs mariniers, pilotes, canoniers, maistre charpentiers 
de navires, soldats et aultres galants hommes qui de toutes parts 
aborderont a luy pour estre employes soubz son commendement. 
Outre ce, ce sera un grand asyle et confort a ceux de sa na- 
tion, qui endurent si grande persequution pour leur foy, et auront 
icy ou se consoler et rafreschir leur mesere, estans tous mis en 
CBuvre pour vostre service par le moyen de ce Seigneur: et Vo- 
stre Altesse obligera grandement toutte ceste nation Angloise, 
la quelle tous jours ira exaltant son nom, et 1'emploiera iusques 
a la derniere estendue de ses forces, pour son service, et fera 
chasque jour des voeux a Dieu pour sa sante, et des siens. et 
pour I'accroissemet de sa grandeur. 

Vostre Altesse Serenissime ayant pese ce discours et rema- 
sche avec sa prudence ordinaire la demande de ce Seigneur, qui 
est autant advantageuse pour vostre estat, que 1'appoinctement 
luy en est desirable. J'espere disie qu'elle soubscrira librement 
a sa requeste. La quelle si Vostre Altesse Serenissime a aggrea- 
ble, il la supplie bien humblement de deigner luy en faire sca- 
voir son desir par un mot de responce, luy octroyant et aux 
siens la liberte du port de Lygorne avec telle protection et fa- 
veur qu'en tel cas seroit requis. 




Letter of Grand-Duke Cosimo II 
to the Earl of Northampton praising Dudley. 

March 17, 1607. 
Dalla citata filza 4186 a pag. 229. 

Minuta del Granduca al Conte di Northampton de'17 Marzo 1607 
(stile comune). 

II Conte di Varuich come Vostra Signoria Illustrissima sa e 
venuto a ricoverarsi in questi miei Stati per poter quietamente 
vivere secondo la Religione, che egli fino a hora ha osservato : et 
io oltre alia notizia che havevo del merito et valor suo, F ho rac- 
cettato anche tanto piu volentieri, per sapere la parentela che 
egli ha con Vostra Signoria Illustrissima, et haver inteso da lui 
medesimo F amore ch' Ella gli porta. Et avendo io in questo 
poco tempo veduto ancora, che egli mostra una devotissima vo- 
lonta verso il suo Re, et di conservarsi suo fedel vassallo et 
servitore, mi e parso di doverne far fede a V. S. Illustrissima 
con questa mia lettera, et pregarla, che si come il detto signore 
Conte tiene lei in luogo di padre, cosi ella Io favorisca come 
figliuolo, mantenendolo nella buona grazia di Sua Maesta, et 
ovviando principalmente che la Maesta Sua non porga orecchie 
alle calunnie che le potessero sinistramente essere impresse nel- 
F ammo da' nemici del sopradetto signore, il merito del quale 
sara cagione che anch' io ne rimarro molto tenuto a Vostra Si- 
gnoria Illustrissima, et dal Signore Iddio le desidero ogni pro- 



Sig. Lottis letter about the ship-builder 
Matthew Baker going to Tuscany. 

Dalla citata filza 4188. Inserto del Lotti alia Segreteria. 23 Maggio 1607. 

(Tutto in cifra.) 

Con F ultime mie letter e de' 16 stante io davo conto a Vostra 
Altezza d' essere stato a Detfort, et di havere quivi sotto colore 
d'intendere qualche cosa intorno alia fabbricatione de' Navilij 
indotto Matteo Caccher a venire a starsi meco una mattina in 
Londra, et che all' hora pensavo d' intendere s' egli havesse ac- 
cettato il partito di venirsene costa al servizio di Vostra Altezza. 
Et non ostante che egli mostri poco gusto di qua ; et che per 
non si dilettare piu i superiori del suo mestieri, venga poco 
adoperato, et dica per due anni non haver mai potuto risquo- 
tere un denaro delle sue provision!, conoscendo anco il partito 
offertoli di reputatione per lui et d' utile, poiche gli accennavo 
che harebbe havuta una buona provvisione ; in ogni modo con 
suo dispiacere ha ricusato di venire, solamente perche 1' eta lo 
sgomenta, et veramente dice d' haver 77 anni et gli mostra an- 
cora. Mi prego bene che io volessi essere di nuovo a Detfort, 
dove mi ha fatto havere molti suoi modelli et strumenti di una 
maniera che par che dica, che se di qua almeno con questa 
sorte di cose egli potesse render e a V. A. servizio communiche- 
rebbe tutto. Et domandatomi della salute del Cavalier Kuberto 
Dudley suo scolare, mostrava che volentieri si sarebbe messo 
ad insegnare la sua professione. Mi accenno che qui era un gio- 
vane fatto da lui, ma non conosciuto, perche altrimenti non 
sarebbe lasciato uscire del Eegno, et che voleva vedere, se que- 
sto harebbe accettato di venire a Vostra Altezza, quando pure 
Ella fusse restata servita 

si aspetta.... il ritorno di quel Capitano di Nave che e venuto a 


trovare il Cavalier Dudelei per inviar ttitto (doe le armi die 
erano state comprate in Ingliilterra per conto del G-randuca) sotto 

la carica di lui (omissis). Quei Mercanti Burlamacchi et 

Calandrini non affermano al certo che il Cavaliere sud- 

detto compri la nave, e concludono che il padrone volendosene 
disfare, ad ogni modo cerchera ogni mezzo di lasciarla nelle 
mani di V.A. 



King James 1st recalls Dudley 
promising to make him Earl of Warwick. 

Dalla citata filza 4188 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Letter a del Lotti al Cav. Vinta. 

Da Londra, 17 Ottobre 1607. 

Qui vien detto da molti che la Maesta di questo Re faccia 
di nuovo richiamare il signer Cavalier Ruberto Dudely, con 
promessa di farlo Conte al suo ritorno, et Conte di Varuich. 
Quello che io so di piu e che la madre di detto signore, haven- 
domi piu volte fatto domandar nuove di suo figliuolo, mi volse 
ultimamente raccomandare alcune lettere, et poi non me le ha 
mandate altrimenti, et il gentilhuomo suo servitore mi soggiunse : 
Habbiamo noi buone nuove di qua, et non disse piu oltre. 




Autograph letter, in which Dudley negotiates a 
marriage for Prince Henry, with a Princess of 

Dalla filza 4190 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Lettera autografa del Dudley diretta 

Al Ser. m ' a Mad. ma Madre mia Signora 
la Granducessa di Toscana. 

Sereniss. ma Madaraa Mia Signora. 

Havendo altri volti tractate con il Serenissimo Principe di 
Ingliterra per modo del S. re Cavalier Challiner suo governatore 
et confidentissimo, et occasione ancora di un suo servitore fidato 
mandate a me li raggioni mei di gran utile al Principe di pa- 
rentarsi con S. A. S., che 1' offerto poteva venire da parte del 
Principe per suo bene, come era proposto. et per questo et altri 
mei negotie con il Principi aveva una ciphera con il detto Ca- 
vallero. Ora fra altri risposti mi a scritto una lettera per mano 
di quel servitore fidato (per molte respecti), il quale essendo 
necessario per V. A. S. di vedere essendo mi pari scritto per 
ordine del Serenissimo Principe et suo bene particulare in quanto 
posso penetrare, tengo pero mio obligo a V. A. S. come servitore 
di mandarlo la lettera stesso con il ciphero in Inglese, avendo 
redutto la parte important e nella lingua vulgare il meglio che 
poteva. Altramente non averebbe fatto tanto presumptione di 
scrivere a V. A. Serenissima in un negotio di tale consequentia, 
senza licentia o comandamenti suoi. Ma per la lettera credo 


V. A. S. sara satisfatto di esser mio debito a fare per suo serv : 
(servizio?). Et cosi faccio reverentia bacciando umilmente la ve- 
ste di V. A. S. 

Livorno, il 13 di Maggio 1612. 

Di V. A. S. 

Fidele servitore 



Dudley s house and possessions in 1614 A. D. 

From the Register of the " Arroti " in the Archives of State. 

Quartiere Santa Maria Novella, Leone Rosso. 
Beni che furno di Orazio di Luigi Rucellai possiede 
Signor Ruberto Dudleo Conte di Warwich et Leicester in 
Inghilterra abitante in Firenze, Decima 1534 di nuovo. 


Una casa nel popolo di San Pancrazio sulla cantonata de' Tor- 
naquinci, confina a primo, secondo e terzo Via, quarto Dionigi 
Rucellai decimata con la stanza del Cocchio in fiorini 16. 16. 

Per Arroto 1590, N 64. 

Due casette poste in detto popolo in via di San Sisto, con- 
finate a primo Via, secondo Carlo di Andrea Rucellai, terzo 
Filippo Del Sera decimate per Arroto 1579, N 144 in fiorini 2, 10. 5 
e ridotte poi per uso per partito 1583, N 362. 

E quali beni compro detto signer Ruberto dal Reverendissimo 
signore Lodovico Cherico di Camera, e Ferdinando fratelli e figli 
di Orazio di Luigi Rucellai per scudi 4000 di lire 7 per scudo 


a gabella del compratore per contratto rogato Ser Bernaba Bac- 
celli sotti di 5 di Aprile 1614, fede in filza N 157. 

E si hanno a levare dalla Decima del 1534, Gonfalone detto 
a 167 da Orazio di Luigi di Cardinale Rucellai con detta Decima. 

Acconcia con presenza del detto Ser Bernaba Baccelli suo 
mandato questo di 6 di Maggio 1614. 


Autograph letter from Dudley to Sig. Cioli 
about his ship the Cosimo. 

Dalla filza 1375 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Carteggio del Segretario Cioli. 

(Direzione). Al Molto 111." Sig. r Mio Osserv. m il 
Sig. r Cavalier Scioli Secretario di Stato a 
S. A. R. 

In Corte. 

31 Marzo 1618. 

Molto Ill. re Sig. r Mio. 

II Capitano Barry in una delle corsarie essendo con me Fal- 
tro die, mi prego a dire a V. S., che non manchera venire a 
Fiorenza. Quando venga, io piacendo a Dio, per reconoscere a 
V. S. quelle favor e che V. S. 1' a ffatto con quel obgligo che li 
deve et la F ha prolongata a farlo con speranza che la Corte 
et V. S. verebbe in queste parte, dove poteva adimplirlo. 

Quelle nuove che io scrissi a V. S. delle gallere di Malta, io 
haveva fra inteso, non essendo parlato de le gallere di Malta, 
ma da altri vasseli arivato a Livorno dopoi. V. S. mi pardoni 


per il briga ne ho dato con quelli mei lettere mandatolo. Et 
cosi li bacie le mano di cuore. 

Di Pisa, il 31 di Marzo 1618. 

Di V. S. Molto Illustre 

Affect. m Servit." 


Dopoi haver scritto ho recevuto la lettera di V. S. et non 
dubito che scriveranno tanto et peggio della gallera nuova, per- 
cioche so loro intentione": ma io dico che in loro presenza la 
gallera regeva et caminava piu del Cosimo, et cosi bisognio che 
la fa, si vogliono governarlo bene, et non metter tanta piu pie- 
tra o savor a dentro che nelle altri, et non credo che fanno per 
ignoranza, essendo cosa troppo vulgare, che troppo pesa, met- 
tera un vasselo troppo in fondo, et quelle qualita di regere et 
caminare havendola una volta, non posso mai perdere, et pero 
e raggione che rendono conto di esso. Et di piu replico : Si bene 
fusse vero che non regesse o andasse troppo in fondo, che cada 
impedimento al caminare, io secure a S. A. S. che in due giorni 
lo faro accommodare per un stratagemma mia, che non ha stato 
mai penetrato. Et di questo stia secure. Quanto che Madama 
parla del S.* Cosimo, veramente si non fusse di mia factura di- 
rei che fusse bonissimo ; et fa bene ordinare che suoi mastri 
sequite quello : si bene anche quello havendo emuli, stava due 
anni indretto, inanzi che potevano chiarire il suo perfectione, 
percioche non volevano : et pero bisognio haver patienza in que- 
sta nuova a lassare un poco 1' invidia sfogarsi, et che li gente 
conoscono meglio la qualita del vasello ; et io son securo che 
conosco 1'uno et 1'altro, et ho visto provare, che se il S. 1 Cosimo 
sia bono, questo non sara mai male. Ben vero e che il S. 1 Cosimo 
a questo avantaggio che importa assai, che in quello io era 
presente insino che il corpo era fatto et passato periculo di 
guastare, ma in questo ho dato solo il dissengnio et garbo, ma 
non ho visto mai insino che era lesto a provare. 

Questo altro passavolante mio varalo adesso. A questo anche 
ho stato presente a finire il corpo et cose importante, et vide- 


ranno per il successo quanto importa, ma con F acquisto di due 
maladie grande et periculose. 

V. S. anche place ricordare Madama Serenissima che tanti 
difficulta et spaventi davano contro il molo di mio inventione : 
in ongni modo e riuscito bene : cosi faranno quelli si S. A. S. 
vole in dispetto delli emuli che riusce bene, conforma che 1' e 
altramente hanno preso quasi tutti ministri preso un disdegnio 
tanto grande contra il vasello, che non e possibile che riuscisse 
si bene fusse perfectissimo. Et dico cosi, percioche so alcuni 
puntilie prese in esso a causare questo disdengnio ; dell quale 
uno e, percioche alcuni periti scrivano confidentamente del go- 
vernare del vassello, et che non poteva mai riuscire. Per la quale 
S. A. S. mi mando per accomodtirlo, come feci in pochi hore a 
loro gran disgusto, et il resentimento di quello resta ancora 
nell' animo, et causa che alcuni cercheranno querele, si possono, 
a lassare il vassello indreto a Messina : et per farlo per giusti- 
ficatamente comminciano a devulgare questo rumore contra il 
vasselli, et causati da quelli come ho detto, che permettono e 
causavano che il vassello portava tanto piu peso di pietra per 
savora delle altri. 


Letter from Dudley about his cause in Rome. 

Dalla filza 1376 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Carteggio col Segretario Cioli. 

(Direzione). Al Molto 111. Signore Mio Osserv. m 
II Sig. r Caval. ro Andrea Sciolli Secretario Prin- 
cipale a S. A. S. Mio Signore 

In Corte. 

Molto Ill. re Sig. r Mio Osserv. mo 

In Pisa ne parlai a V. S. il favore a procurarmi quando ne 
haverebbe bisognia d'una lettera da S. A. S. mio signore in fa- 



vore di mia causa et negotio a Roma, quale ne premio, et mi 
importa assai in mei negotio di consequenza, essendo lesto la 
causa per sentenza nella Camera Apostolica di Roma. Ora havendo 
notitia da mio Procuratore Cosimo Orlandini che ha procurato 
dal auditore della camera che della mia causa e deputato con- 
formo al suo dessiderio al Mons. e Torello (fratello del Conte 
Torello Camerero di S. A. S.) per sententiarlo; pero li prego V.S. 
procurarmi la lettera di S. A. S. proprio caldamente ad detto 
Monsignore Torello per favorire conforma a giustitia et con espe- 
ditione la mia causa, essendo deputato a lui per dare la sentenza 
difinitiva, et piacendo S. A. mostrare che li preme il bon suc- 
cesso della causa per mio bene, essendo suo servitore devotissimo 
et sotto la protectione suo etc., a me sara una gratia singular e. 
V. S. mi fara gran favore in procurando questo lettera, et quanto 
primo, piacendo darlo al portatore di questo il sig. r Giovan Babti- 
sta Terranuova, il quale ne ho ordinato mandarlo secure a mio 
Procuratore in Roma, per presentarlo, quando ella trova 1' oc- 
casione opportune. Et cosi ringratiandolo infinitamente per molti 
suoi favore, li bacce le mano di cuore. 

Di Pisa, il 4 di Aprile 1618. 

Di V. S. Molto Illustre 

Affect. m <> per servirlo 



Dudley head of the arsenal at Leghorn. 

Dalla citata filza 1376. 

(Direzione). Al Molto Ill. re Sig. r Mio Osserv. 
il Sig. r Caval. ro Sciolli Segretario Princi- 
pale a S. A. S. Mio Signore 

In Corte. 

Molto Ill. re Sig. r Mio Osserv. mo 

Ne ho stato alcuni giorni qua piu che pensai, percioche li 
macestranza del Arsinale hanno stato impegati in altri servitie 
necessarie ; et pero non poteva avanzare cotesto vassello di mio 
inventione abastante per partirmi verso Fiorenza, come spero a 
fare indubitatamente fra otto o dieci giorni. V. S. posso dire a 
Sua Altezza Serenissima mio signer e da parte mia, che il vas- 
sello sara in mio opione (sic) conforma al mio pensiero per il 
servitio suo, et cosa buona. Ne ho anche pensato di una curio- 
sita nelle reme per vogare con piu facilta et forza, come spero 
che riuscera havendo messo un remo di quella fogia supra la 
galliotta a Livorno per provarlo. Mi scrive che per adesso riu- 
sce bene conformo al intentione. Ma innanzi che io parli, ne 
andero a Livorno per videre 1' effetto, et ordinare quel che po- 
tro per farlo riuscire, et anche videre la Sassaia et Petaccio 
nuovo ordinato da Sua Altezza Serenissima. 

Ultimamente li ringratia S. A. S. mio signore infinitamente 
per la lettera sua scritto in favore di mio causa a Roma a Mon- 
signore Torelli deputato giudice d' esso, il quale ha dato sentenza 
in favor mio, come dessiderato et mi importa assai, del quale, 
quando saro a Fiorenza ne rendero conto a S. A. S. per mezzo 
di V.S., in che mi confido piu che in huomo vivente, et posso 
commandarmi totalmente. Mi sono piu dl allegrato per sapere 
della perfetta sanita di S. A. S., essendo il maggior consolatione 
questo mondo posso darmi. V. S. mi fara gratia a ricordarmi 


humilissimo servitore a Madama Serenissima mia signora bac- 
ciando humilmente la Yesta. Cosi di non fasti giarlo troppo li 
bacce le mano di cuore a V. S. mia moglia, facciendo il medes- 
simo alia signora sua consorta, ne fo fine. 

Di Pisa, il 10 di Maggio 1618. 

Di V. S. Molto Illustre 

Affect. mo per servirlo 



Viscount Lisle is made Earl of Leicester. 

Dalla filza 4193 (nuova nnmerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Da una lettera del Salvetti di Londra al Picchena 
in data de' 6 di Settembre 1618. 

Dissi gia a Vostra Signoria Illustrissima come il 

Visconte di Lisle era stato fatto Conte di Leister a pregiuditio 
di cotesto signor Conte di Waruuiche ; adesso sento che il Ba- 
rone Riche, che nel stesso fu fatto Conte di Clare; trovando 
qualche sorupolo in quel titolo di Clare per appartenere gia 
alia Corona et suoi descendenti, supplica di cambiarlo, et che 
sia su Fottenerlo, per quello di Waruuiche, et che 1'ordine sia 
dato per rifare la patente in conformita, la qual cosa, se suc- 
cede, sara trovata molto strana, a chi tanto tocca. 


Dalla citata filza 4193. Altra lettera de' 14 Settembre 1618. 
Lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 



Questo Barone Riche ha tre giorni sono hauto la 

nuova patente Regia che li permuta il nome di Conte di Clare 
in quello di Warwiche, di modo che cotesto signer Dudlie Conte 
del stesso nome, viene adesso a perdere la speranza di mai piu 
rihavere qua ne questo titolo, ne 1' altro di Leister di suo pa- 
dre; et tutto questo e seguito per non havere hauto qua nes- 
suno per lui, che si sia voluto mostrare, ne opporsi a cosa nes- 
suna, che me ne displace infinitamente. 



Patent of the Emp. Ferdinand creating Dudley 
Earl of Northumberland, 1620. 

Ferdinandus 2. us divina favente dementia electus Romanorurn 
Imperator semper Augustus, ac Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae, 
Dalmatiae, Croatiae, Sclavonic, etc. Rex, Archidux Austriae, Dux 
Burgundiae, Brabantiae, Styriae, Carinthiae, Carniolae, Marchio 
Moravian, Dux Lucemburgae ac superioris et inferioris Silesiae, 
Wirtembergae et Tecka9, Princeps Sveviae, Comes Habspurgi, 
Tirolis, Feretiskyburgi et Goritiae, Ladtgravius Alsatiaa Marchiae, 
Sacri Romani Imperii, Burgoviae, ac superioris et inferioris 
Lusatiae, Dominus Marchiae Sclavoniae Portus Naonis et Salina- 
rum etc. Illustri sincere Nobis dilecto Roberto Dudleo, Duci 
Northumbriae, Comiti de Warwich, gratiam nostram Caesaream 
et omne bonum, Majestatis Imperialis ad cujus excelsum fasti- 
gium, divina providentia, sumus erecti, Preheminentia, atque 
dignitas si alia in re ulla consistit, eo certe in studio cum pri- 
mis se se extollit, quod justitiae et aequabilitati qua nimirum 
unicuique suum tribuitur tuendae et conservandae impendit, co- 
gitationes suas in id convertens, ut eum depravati perditorum 
hominum mores, legum severitate coerceantur, vice autem versa, 
qui caeteris natalium splendore, vitae integritate, fide inconcussa, 


aliisque virtutibus antecellunt, uberiorum quoque honorum prse- 
miis condecorentur. Turn vero potissima illorum hateatur ratio, 
qui prosapise suse vetustate conspicui, eamdem tarn ipsi, quam 
eorum majores non modo prseclaris actionibus in secundse for- 
tunes splendore, illtistriorem reddere satagunt, verum etiam 
laudatissimi Anirni moderatione atque virili constantia, sortem 
quoque adversam, uti reruin humanarum sunt vicissitudines, 
fortiter excipiunt, et quemadmodum idem solis gressus est, sive 
coelo sereno sive nubilo, sic hi memores generosse propaginis, 
unde sanguinem traxerunt, ad varies instabilis fortunes aspectus 
nee vultum nee animum mutant, sed unam, eamque prsecipuam 
curam habent, ut Fidei, Deo, Religioni, et Reipublicse debitam 
nulla indigna actione contaminent, sed quacumque etiam via 
vel ratione possint, in amictse patrise solatium, vel supremorum 
orbis principum beneficium, studia atque consiglia sua utiliter 
conferant, adeoque non sibi tantum et suis, verum reipublicae 
majori ex parte se natos, vivis rerum exemplis profiteantur. Cum 
igitur fide digno testimonio, ac diversis autenticis literarum do- 
cumentis compertum habeamus ex ea vos familia in Anglise 
regno originem ducere, quse viros complures a singulari pruden- 
tia et auctoritate in primariis Regni functionibus cum dignitate 
sustinendis, exercitatos, et proinde domi forisque caalebres et 
belli pacisque artibus claros produxerit, unde per varios hono- 
rum gradus, quod historise, aliaque passim monumenta testifi- 
centur, Regum benignitate in Regno sint provecti, atque inter 
caeteros Avus olim vester paternus Joannes Dudleus Comes de 
Warwich postquam observantium suam erga Regem, aniorem 
in Patria multis argumentibus et occasionibus non minus glorise 
quam periculi plenis abunde comprobasset, Suprema Ducalis 
dignitatis prserogativse libere, et inconfiscabiliter insigniri, et 
pro se ac hseredibus suis masculis, Dux Northumbrise dici atque 
ad Nomen, Titulum, Statum, Gradum, Locum, Sedem, Prehemi- 
nentiam, Honor em, Auctoritatem, et Dignitatem Ducis Northum- 
brise legitime promoveri et de iis omnibus realiter investiri me- 
ruerit. Temporis vero successu, cum intestinis omnia dissidiis 
in dicto Anglise Regno fluctuarent et novarum opinionum fervor 
antique Religionis Cultores profligasset, Vos quidem resolutione 
generosa tempestatem illam prudenter declinando, voluntariam 


e patria secessionern fecisse, variisque cristiani orbis regionibus 
cum fructu peragratis, fortunarum vestrarum jacturam magno 
excelsoque animo in lucro reputasse. Interim in tot serumnis, 
atque molestiis diuturnis a prseclaris majorum vestrorum ve- 
stigiis ne levi quidem motu deflectere, sed ex quo tempore Flo- 
rentise (donee nielioris fortunse spes adfulget) sedem fixistis, ob 
singularem vitse morumque integritatem, prudentiam, rerum 
usum, raras et ingeniosas inventiones, non modo Magno Hetrti- 
rise Duci affini et Principi nostro carissimo propius innotuisse, 
verum etiam nominis vestri famam ad Serenissimi Principis 
D. Philippi 3. Hispaniarum, utriusque Sicilise, Hierusalem etc. 
Regis Catholici Archeducis Austrise, Ducis Burgundise affinis et 
fratris nostri carissimi notitiam pervenisse. Quorsum accedat 
peculiare quoddam observantise studium quod in nostra, sacri- 
que Imperii et Inclitse Domus Nostrse Austrise obsequia prolixe 
nobis reverenterque per litteras aliquoties obtulistis, in quo lau- 
dabili institute nequaquam ambigimus, quin deinceps quoque 
firmiter atque constanter sitis perserveraturi, Hisce aliisque de 
causis animum nostrum merito moventibus baud omittendum 
duximus quin familise vestrse preheminentise, decus et ornamen- 
tum, simulque nostram erga Vos, vestrosque benigni propensique 
Animi affectionem, non tarn ad ampliandam, quam ejusdem 
honorem et dignitatem avitam conservandam (In quo quidem 
Caesarei nostri muneris ac ipsius equitatis ratio versari videtur) 
nostro testimonio comprobatam relinqueremus, quo sic posteri- 
tas vestra hujusmodi glorise stimulis incitata, ad eadem virtutis 
studia tanto alacrius, ferventiusque contendat ; Qua Propter ex 
certa nostra scientia, animoque bene deliberato, sano et maturo 
accedente consilio, et ex potestatis Nostrse Imperialis plenitu- 
dine, vigore prsesentis Nostri Diplomatis, Declaramus suprano- 
minatum Illustrem Robertum Dudleum, Comitem a Warwick, 
tanquam descendentem ab Avo suo paterno Joanne Comite a 
Warwich libere et inconfiscabiliter creato Duce Northumbrise, 
et successive filium illius primo genitum Ill. rem D. n Cosimum, 
et alns or dine primogeniturse semper observato ex legittimo 
ipsius matrimonii foedere seterna serie procreandos per univer- 
sum Sacrum Romanum Imperium, et Regna, ditionesqne nostras 
hsereditarias, Ducem Northumbrise vocari, scribi, nominari, hono- 


rari, atque reputari, eoque titulo tarn in judicio quam extra, 
tarn scripto, quam viva voce, nee non in rebus spiritualibus et 
temporalibus, ecclesiasticis et profanis, aliisque negotiis et actio- 
nibus quibuscumque uti, et ab aliis decorari posse et debere. 
Quam tamen declaratioiiem nostram non alio sensu intelligi volu- 
mus, atque decernimus, quam ut unicuique suum tribuatur, et 
debita honorum ornamenta Principi exuli, etiam in Sacro Ro- 
mano Imperio, aliisque terris ac provinciis nostris, sarta tecta 
conserventur ; Mandamus proinde universis et singulis Electo- 
ribus, aliisque Principibus Ecclesiasticis et Ssecularibus, Archiepi- 
scopis, Episcopis, Ducibus, Marchionibus, Comitibus, Baronibus, 
Militibus, Nobilibus, Clientibus, Capitaneis Vice dominis, Prse- 
fectis, Castellanis, Locum tenentibus, Officialibus, Heroaldis, Ca- 
duceatoribus, Burgi Magistris, Judicibus, Consulibus, Civibus, et 
generaliter omnibus et singulis nostris, ac Sacri Romani Imperii, 
Regnorumque, et Provinciarum nostrarum hsereditariarum, sub- 
ditis atque fidelibus dilectis cujuscumque dignitatis, gradus, or- 
dinis, et conditionis existant, Ut Vos Robertum Dudleum Comitem 
a Warwick, vestrosque successive hseredes masculos, Duces Nor- 
thumbriae agnoscant, eoque titulo nominent, compellent, reputent, 
Et tarn scripto quam nuncupatione verbali honorent, et ne quid 
per alios in contrarium attentetur viribus prohibeant, atque 
avertant. Et enim haec seria mens atque voluntas Nostra Cse- 
sarea, cui omnes prompte obtemperaturos clementer confidimus, 
quatenus indignationem nostram gravissimam, aliasque poenas 
arbitrarias evitare voluerint, Quod literis hisce patentibus manu 
nostra subscriptis, et Aurese nostrse Imperialis Bullse typario fir- 
matis palam facere voluimus. Datum in Civitate Nostra Viennse, 
Die nona Mensis Martii Anno Domini 1620. Regnorum Nostro- 
rum Rom. ni primo, Hungarici 2, Bohemici 3, etc. 


Locus Bullse Aurese Imperialis Pendentis. 
Vice R. mi D. ml Jo. Swicardi Archicancellarii et Elect. Mog. 
V. L. Volm. Ad mandatum Sacrse Majestatis proprium. 



Et quia suprascriptas Literas Patentes ex earum proprio ori- 
ginal! exaratas cum ipso earum original! penes prsedictum Ill. mum 
et Ecc. mum D. D. Robertum Dudleum Northumbrise Ducem ser- 
vato, diligenti habita collatione, ad verbum rescontrare et con- 
cordare reperui, Ideoque In fidem Ego Robertas Roffius q. m Ti- 
buitii f., Magna Ducali Auth. e Jtid. Ordinarius Notariusque 
p. us Florentise hie me subscripsi, meoque solito signo signavi. 
Hac die 18 Aprilis 1637. Laus Deo. 


Letter from Amerigo Salvetti 
about Dudley appointing him his agent in London. 

Dalla filza 4194 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Da una lettera di Amerigo Salvetti al PiccJiena in data di Londra 
3 Settembre 1620. 


Ho riceuto una lettera da cotesto sig. e Conte di Waruich, nella 
quale mi prega di pigliarmi, insieme con un Inglese 1' assunto 
di tutti li suoi affari in questo Regno, havendomene a questo 
effetto mandate procura autentica. Ma perche V. Sig. ria Ill. ma non 
me ne dice cosa alcuna, non mi risolvo, senza comandamento 
espresso del Serenissimo Padrone d' ingerirmi in affari d' altri, 
massime questi, che sono di tal qualita, che bisogna giornal- 
mente trattarli con persone di Stato, che senza autorita di co- 
sta non ardirei, ne potrei sperare di fare mai in suo servizio 
cosa buona. Et se bene il sig. e Conte nella sua procura si e 
compiaciuto di nominarmi Agente di Sua Altezza Serenissima, 
non solo non me ne serviro, ma ne anche la mostrero, come non 



mi sono mai fin qui mostrato per tale a nessuno. Supplico V. S. 
IlL ma ad accennarmi la volonta del Serenissimo Padrone, che 
tanto osservero. 



Dudley asks leave to make reprisals 
on the English ships, and promises Cioli a present. 

Dalla filza 1447. 

(Direzione). Al Molto 111. Sig. il Sig. e Caval. ro Sciolli 
mio Osserv. Secret.' Principale a S. A. S. in 
mano propria 

In Corte. 

Molto Ill. re Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Adesso non videndo piu speranza d'Ingleterra in quel mei 
negotie S. A. S. per gratia suo ha tanti volte raccomandato 
a S. M. a pero bisongnio venire ali ultima remedia per giustitia 
quale S. A. S. posso concedermi et nega a nessuno. In quale 
V. S. sta bene informato, et anche sara meglio per questo ma- 
niera di supplica qua incluso con li consideratione che seguita : 
per la quale V. S. videra, che io non voleva communicare F in- 
tentione del negotio a sig. e Doctor e Chelese (Cellesi?), et havevo 
io raggione, percioche non haveva lui autorita in scritto da S. A. 
anzi non me voleva elargarrni troppo, percioche sono molto obgli- 
gato alia casa di Zozifante, con quale li Celese non hanno tropo 
intrinsicetza. L' intentione delle supplica sono differente assai, 
pero li prego remandarmi il primo et seguitare questo meglio 
foundata contra tutti obgectione, come ne ho considerate in esso 
a risponderlo, et anzi a dare S. A. S. mio signore molti boni et 
giusti protesti a farlo, nel quale mi elargero quando sara di 


bisonio. Intanto prego V. S. negotiarlo ingeniosamente per riu- 
scire, et V. S. sara piu di secure del quatuor milla ducat pro- 
messo per condurlo e bon fine: et ansi di piu; subito che S. A. S. 
lia concesso a la restitutione domandata, mia moglia mandera 
un presente sua alia sig. ra sua consorte di qualche consideratione. 
II negotio bisongnio passare pochi mani, pero ho scritto la 
supplica con mio mano proprio, percioche essendo devulgato, si 
bene fusse concesso di S. A. S., non riuscerebbe come doveva. 
Pero V. S. piace opperare che sia referto solo al signer Fiscale, 
quale cognosco per intelligente et huomo da bene et amico 
di V. S., et fara il giusto senza passione o per compiacere, et 
si bisongnio per forza entrare un altro (come non credo) mi 
pare che il signor Giunio meglio approposito, si V. S. non ha 
interesse securo a qualche altro, al quale mi remitto. Et quanto 
a sottoscrivere 1' ordine per informatione, li ultime 4 linie della 
suplica dichari benisime, resta solo si S. A. piace meglio haver 
sodisfactione (della giustitia domandato per informatione) o per 
sentenza, dove va la concienza. 


Endorsement of the Sentence of the Curia Apostolica 1 

DalF Archivio Diplomatico. 
Pergamena proveniente dal K. Archivio del Bigallo. 


1627, 17 Novembre, Ind. X. 

Lettere di Gregorio Naro Auditore Generale della Camera 
Apostolica, comandando per questa, sotto pena di mille Ducati 
d'oro al Granduca Ferdinando, ed a tutti gli altri Ministri di 

1 The Sentence itself is too lengthy a document to be quoted entire. 


Giustizia che sequestrino, vendino tutti i beni del Parlamento 
e Parlamentari d' Inghilterra e di tutti li Inghilesi in solidum 
eccettuati i Cattolici profess! per dare e pagare a Ruberto figlio 
d' altro Ruberto Dudleo Duca di Nottumbria, a Cosimo Dudleo 
Duca di Varuich suo figlio e ad Elisabetta Sathuella moglie del 
suddetto Roberto ed a tutti gli altri figli che nasceranno dai 
sopradetti Coniugi otto milioni di lire sterline et altre dugento- 
mila per i frutti a cagione dell'indebita occupazione e confisca- 
zione fatta del suddetto ducato, e cio a tenore della sentenza 
promulgata da Pietro Niccolini Vicario Generale dell'Arcivescovo 
di Firenze e confermata dal suddetto Naro. 


Salvettis letter to Sig. r Dimurgo Lambardi 
about the Sentence of the Curia Apostolica. 

Dalla filza 4196 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Da una lettera del Salvetti al signor Dimurgo Lambardi in data di Londra 
2 Ottobre 1626, cosl truscriviamo. 


Qui si va sussurrando di non so che sentenza che cotesto 
signor Roberto Dudlie o Duca, come si fa chiamare, habbia 
procurato dal foro ecclesiastico di farsi dichiarare creditore di 
questo Regno di 200 mila lire sterline. Non vorrei gia che fusse 
vero, per non dare gelosia a questi mercanti del fare scala a 
Livorno con le lor nave et effetti ; et percio io ne li dico un 
motto, accio che in caso ci fusse tal cosa possino Loro Altesse 
rimediarvi, come faccio io da questa banda, col dire non potere 
essere tal cosa ; et che essendo, sia un suo capriccio particolare, 


et non punto da sconcertare il lor traffico di Livorno, dove non 
possono aspettare che ogni sorte di rispetto et cortesia. 



The Duchess of Northumberland asks Sig. Salvetti 
to negotiate the Dudley cause. 

Dalla citata filza 4197 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 
Lettera del Salvetti al Cioli. 

28 Giugno 1630. 

Dalle letters di Vostra Signoria Illustrissima de' 17 et 23 del 
passato con la giunta di sua mano de' 25 sotto dell' ultima ho 
inteso quanto mi ha per parte del Serenissimo Granduca nostro 
signore comandato intorno a quello che io fussi richiesto dalla 
signora Duchessa di Northumbria di affaticarmi in suo servizio 
in questa Corte. Io ho riceuto da Sua Eccellenza ampla infor- 
matione della qualita del suo negozio, et non ostante che quando 
io la ricevetti io fussi in procinto di uscire di questa citta, volsi 
nondimeno fermarmi fino a lunedi prossimo per trattare con 
alcuni signori, per sentire che speranza si poteva havere di con- 
solare cotesta signora. Ma perche si tratta di cavare denari di 
mano del Re per pretensioni di debito, fin quando viveva il 
Principe Henrico suo fratello, et la sornma di dodicimila ducati, 
in congiuntura di tanta strettezza, essendo considerabile, ritraggo 
sara cosa dificilissima, almeno per un pezzo, di venirne a quella 
conclusione che sarebbe necessaria alle presenti occasioni di Sua 
Eccellenza. Et se bene il signer Majordomo di Sua Maesta gli 
haveva scritto d'haverne hauto promessa per il paganiento, et 
che infra tanto egli 1'haverebbe sovvenuta presentemente della 


sua propria borsa (come io sono certissimo die Fhaverebbe 
fatto) la sua morte ha omninamente alterato tutto, perche quelli 
che promettono hora di parlarne al Re con la prima buona 
occasione, non havenclo verso della signora Duchessa quei ri- 
spetti di affetto che gli haveva il signer Majorclomo, vuole dire 
che s' havera da loro sempre buone parole, che per il resto io 
ne dubito. 

Con F inclusa do parte a Sua Eccellenza di tutto, et come, 
per quello che potra dependere da me, di assigurarsi, che io 
non mi stracchero mai di fare quanto sara mai possibile in suo 
servizio, dispiacendomi molto che sia per riuscire impiego di 
molto poco gusto, per trattarsi di cavare denari dall' erario Re- 
gio in questi tempi tanto penuriosi. Finito la vacanza, et che 
la peste me Io permetta, io ritornero a Londra subito. Intanto 
daremo tempo a quei signori, che hanno promesso di parlarne 
al Re, quando la congiuntura li serva. Ai quali, se li riuscira 
di ritrarre da Sua Maesta promessa et riconoscimento del de- 
bito, sara tanto meglio, tutto che bisognasse dipoi aspettare che 
ci fusse denari per il pagamento. Insomnia il negozio mi sara 
a cuore, ma la salute propria molto piu ; massime hora che 
Finfezione della peste essendo arrivata vicina a casa mia sono 
forzato d' andarmene. 



Death of the Duchess of Northumberland. 

Dalla citata filza. 

Lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

Londra, 31 Ottobre 1631. 

Al mio ritorno a Londra ho riceuto due lettere di Vostra 
Signoria Illustrissima de' 13 et 20 di Settembre, la prima delle 
quali portandomi la nuova della morte della signora Duchessa 


di Northumbria, non ho potato leggere, senza compatire gran- 
demente il signer Duca di cosi gran perdita. II Signore Iddio 
lo consoli, come per questo suo interesse di qua io cerco di 
consolaiio, con speranza che fusse per riuscirmi, mentre il si- 
gnor Duca potesse giustificare il contratto accennato a Yostra 
Signoria Illustrissima con altra. 



The Grand-Duke is interested in Dudley's 
obtaining restitution. 

Dalla citata filza 4208. 
Minuta di lettera del G-randuca al Salvetti. 

.... Settembre 1632. 

Noi habbiarno sentito volentieri che da voi sia stato inca- 
minato il negozio del signor Duca di Nortumbria in modo che 
speriate di conseguire ben presto il denaro che deve servire per 
nostro rimborso, et succedendo, come ci promettiamo dalla vo- 
stra diligenza lo conserverete appresso di voi per seguirne la 
nostra volonta, secondo che vi scrivera il Bali Cioli nostro primo 
segretario di Stato, e Dio vi prosperi, etc. 



Sig. r Salvetti sends Dudley 8000 scudi, 
restitution from the Grown of England. 

Dalla citata filza 4198. 
Altra lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

26 Agosto 1633. 


Al signer Duca di Northumbria sara pagato dai signori Gua- 
dagni scudi ottomila, che cosi gli ho questo giorno ordinato di 
fare, et che ne piglino riceuta per mia discarica, godendo molto 
di essere cosi bene uscito da un tanto intrigato negozio, et d'havere 
servito Sua Eccellenza. 


The young Earl of Pembroke dies in Dudley s house. 

Dalla citata filza 4208. 

Lettera del Poltri (Lorenzo) al Salvetti in data 8 Gennaio 1635 
ab Incarnatione (1636). 

In cinque soli giorni di malattia si e morto in questa citta 
il signor Conte di Pembroke, senza che gli habbia giovato ri- 
medio alcuno. II male e stato creduto di vaiolo, ma e piii tosto 
stato di petecchie. II signor Duca di Nortumbria ha fatto tutto 
quello che e stato possibile, ma finalmente era venuta la sua 


hora. Sua Altezza F ha fatto visitare piu volte, et ha sentlto con 
dispiacer grande questo grave accidente, compatendo al dolore, 
che di questo cattivo avviso sentira il signor suo padre, con chi 
passera V. S. quegli ofntii di condoglianza che le parranno op- 
portuni, mostrando il dispiacere che ha Sua Altezza, come ella 
sappia fare meglio, che io prescrivernele il modo. 

II cadavere si manda a Olivola in Lunigiana luogo del si- 
gnor Marchese Spinetta Malaspina, genero del signor Duca di 
Nortumbria, et e stato condotto dal signor Carlo Cotorel et da 
un altro del paese, essendosi accompagnato con passaporti per 
tutto quello che possa succeder per viaggio. Mi dispiace di do- 
ver dare a V. S. questo avviso, ma conviene accomodarsi a quello 
che occorse, et le bacio, ec. 


Dudley asks a Commenda for his son Don Antonio. 

Dalla citata filza 1411 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

(Direzione). All' 111." et Clariss. Sig.* Mio Osserv. m 
il Sig. e Balli Cioli primo Secretario di Stato e Con- 
seliere Secreto di S. A. S. etc. 

In sua mauo. 

111. 1110 e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Alcune mese fa V. S. Ill. ma mi scrisse delle beningnia mente 
di S. A. mio signore di tirare inanzi Don Antonio mio figlio e 
Cavaliere per navigare, e di favorirlo per questo fine con la pros- 
sima commenda di grazia che cascasse. Intendo per la morte 
del cavalier Carlo Picchelomeni e cascata una commenda : su- 
pligo Y. S. Ill. ma di favorire il mio detto figliolo apresso di S. A., 
e lei, per grazia sua, mi haveva promesso di fare, e non son 



abile ancora <T alzarmi in letto per scrivere a S. A. e anco con 
fastigio scrivo questo. Baccio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma di vero 

Di Villa, le 9 di Luglio 1638. 
Di V. S. 111. 

Circa il vestito cli Don Carlo ho gia dato ordine e denare 
al signer Dottore Grazia che sia fatto bene con espeditione, ma 
dubito che il giovane ha qualche intrigo per la testa. Piaccia 
a Dio, e una volta osserva la parola come deve con suoi patroni. 

Affect. e Serv. rc 


Don Antonio elected Knight of St. Stephen. 

A di 21 di Gennaio 1636. 

Gl' Ill. mi Sig. 1 Dodici Cavalieri del Consiglio deliberorno : 

Che per vedere le Provanze, che di sua Nobilta vorra fare il 
sig. D. r Antonio del sig. D. a Roberto Dudleo Duca di Northum- 
bria, supplicante 1'Habito di Cav. Milite per Giustizia: Et per 
referire quanto le parra di potersi a S. A. S. rappresentare, 
s' intendino et s' habbino per eletti, e deputati in Commissari li 
Sigg. 1 Cavalieri Banderuoli et Cap. Paccheroni. 

C. a FRAN. CO ANSALDI, V. Cancell. 
Fu spedito dal Consiglio li 5 Maggio 1637. 



Dudley announces to Sig. Cioli 
his son Antonio's death. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

So quanto sono obgligato alia cortesia e favore di V. S. Ill. ma 
e con quanto disgosto mi manda 1' aviso della morte del Cava- 
liere Don Antonio mio ben amato figliolo, e realmente era buono 
e obediente a me ; basta e obgligo della creatura di ubedire 
voluntiere la volunta del Creatore : E cosl fo io per grazia di 
Dio : altramente ne stimo assai il perdito di un figliolo si ube- 
cliente. Mi console, che e morto in servizio della Religione, del 
quale era Cavalier e e di S. A. S. nostro Patrono. Piacera V. S. 
Ill. ma farmi favore di mandare 1'inclusa con la prima occasione 
al sig. e Generale delle gallere ; e veramente ne resto molto obgli- 
gato alia sua cortesia a detto mio figliolo, faccendo per lui quanto 
fu possibile da fare dal principio del viagio sin alia fine di sua 
vita, e suplico V. S. Ill. ma , come il piu confidents amico e patrono, 
cbe ho, e della casa mia di ringraziarlo ancora con dua parole 
in scritto, e per fine baccio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma , come vero 

Di Villa, le 19 di Novembre 1638. 

Di V. S. Ill. ma e Clariss. ma 

Ne resto con infinito obgligo a S. A. mio signore, che ha 
piaciuto per grazia sua di sentire dispiacere del perdito di detto 
mio figliolo etc. e compatiri a me del perdito. 

Affect. m e Obgligatiss. m Serv. re 



Dudley's letters to Sig. Cioli 
about Don Carlo robbing his house. 


Ill. mo et Clariss." 10 Sig. e Mio Osserv. 

Hoggie scrissi a V. S. Ill. ma per rendere conto a S. A. S. mio 
signore come Don Carlo e entrata in casa (mentre ch'era alia 
messa) con parechi bocchi di fuoco, et a portata via F argenteria 
che hebbe fuora per valsuta di Ducati 300 in circa, e S. A. sa 
che io ne dubitava gia di questo suo mal intentione, et d'altro 
peggiore. Se non si fa qualche resentimento grande per un de- 
litto si grave fatto contra il Padre in Pallazio di S. A. con 
mancamento di piu della parola dato a S. A. tanti volti, come 
V. S. Ill. ma sa et e ben informato, et ne ha avertito gia per let- 
tere a questo Giovane della Potentia de S. A. ; pare che questo 
e fatto in spreggio del Principe, del Padre et del consiglio da- 
toli da Vostra Signoria Ill. ma . E venuto, per quanto posso con- 
getturare da Lucca, et forza la si ritornera con la buttina. Per- 
tanto mi rimetta totalmente alia prudenzia di Sua Altezza, di 
fare quello che giudichera piu espediente di prevenire maggior 
male : come apparisce gia per 1' inditie che ho detto a S. A., et 
per la maniera del procedere ha cattiva intentione, et e stato 
mal consigliato da quello cha una volta 1' accennai a lei per le 
sue lettere, et veramente merita d'essere castigate, in modo di 
confessare qualche cosa d' avantagio di quel che sapiamo, et da 
lui ne hebbe gia umbra di quel che in parte e seguito. 

Credo che Sua Altezza mi clara licenzia, et anco commanda- 
mento di non dare piu provisione a Don Carlo, sin che sono 
rimborsato della valsuta del argenteria che ha presa ; ma se lui 
si rimettera in potere della clemenzia di S. A., o che S. A. per 
la sua potentia la puo haverlo per mortificarlo ben bene in una 
fortezza, li claro per suo vitto quel tanto che sard commandato 


da nostro Signore et Principe. Et questo e quanto ho pensato 
d' agiugnere all' altra mia lettera a V. S. Ill. raa , et per fine li 
baccio affettionatamente le mani con mio humilissimo riveren- 
zia a S. A. 

Di Villa, le 24 di Gennaio al tardo 1638. 

Di V. S. 111. 1 " et Clariss. ma 

Aff. m et Obgligatis. m Serv. re 


Dalla. citata filza. 
Altra lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

Ill. mo et Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Ho riceuuto le due lettere di V. S. Ill. ma in risposto delle 
mie circa Don Carlo, et se bene molti sperava bene di lui, non 
sentendose piu parlare, io ne aspettava aloro piu cattivita di 
lui, quando stava quieto, et la mia famiglia puo giustificare che 
1' aspettava ; et quando andai alia messa dominica passata, non 
havendo in quell tempo piu di un servitore in casa di andare 
meco, lassai espresse ordine con la donna vecchia di casa di 
serare le porte, cosi non poteva entrare senza un petardo. Ma 
trovo adesso che questa donna lasciava F uscie operte a posta 
che entrasse, et era luLnascosto in un fosso vicino, et hebbe 
subito notitia della mia partenza a Boldrone per sentire messa 
essendo il di domenica, Et cosi entrava concertatamente con 
questa dona, come a suo tempo si trovera tutto. Io stimava 
piu per male 1' insolenzia sua contra Sua Altezza di fare questo 
celeratagine in Palatia sua, et con mancare la parola data, che 
per la valsuta et per suo cativo animo verso di me; ne sono 
certe, et e gran grazia di Dio che mi ha dato questo avertimento 
senza esser in casa, che se io fusse stato, mori lui o io; et cosi 
riescira forza un' altra volta, et ne sto lesto aspettandolo, per- 
che non havuto quello che aspettava, et egli sa che di questo 
io posso valermi in pochi mese di ritinere la sua provisione ; si 


bene importa il spoglio per 40 libri et piu d' argenteria. E vero 
quell die Y. S. Ill. ma mi accenna, che ha bisongnio di piii effi- 
caci rimedie ; ma non sono in mio potere, sono nella potentia 
solo di S. A. S. mio signore di danare a chi ha mancato gia 
cinque volte la parola di Cavaliero in scritto. E detto che e 
ritornato a Luca o dove sara, se bene forzi non renderanno la 
sua persona in mano di Sua Altezza Serenissima, crederei non 
di meno ad instantia d' un Principe si potente, si terebbe lui 
la in prigione a domare, considerando 1'escessi che ha fatto, et 
ne ho visto tenuto a Fiorenza un Gentilhuomo Genoese molti 
anni ad instanza del padre in Genoa, come adesso e ancora 
qui il figliolo del Marchese Obise; et pero crederia, che per 
mezzo di S. A. si farebbono 1' istesso a lui o a Luca o in altra 
citta per prevenire che non va vagabondando per il mondo, et 
dishonorare la casa sua, et forze in fine capitare male nell'as- 
sociare con banditi, perche lui qui hebbi con suo servitore nove 
pistolle et terserolle fra lor due, et e sicuro. Et per fine bacio 
le mani di V. S. Ill. ma 

Di Villa, le 30 di Gennaio 1638. 

Di V. S. 111. et Clariss. et Obgligatiss. m <> Servitore 


Don Carlo a rebel. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 
Lettera del Duca al Cioli. 

Ill. mo et Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Questo disgraziato figliolo Don Carlo e venuto un' altra volta 
a Castello, et e qui in cheasa (sic) se stara. Mi pare una mezza 
ribellione contra sua Principe e il padre di mancare la parola 
con S. A. tanti volti. Crederei che qualche imbasata asperissima, 


come merita, o qualche bando severe li farebbe stare meglio in 
cervello et aviarsi alia guerra. Lui finge cosi, e d'aspettare 
da S. A. gualche lettera di servire alia guerra il Serenissimo 
Principe. Non mi pare la strada di procurar grazia con il man- 
camento di parola quasi ogni di a S. A. S. mio signore, et a me 
stimo (per tal mancamento) che mi dasse tante punelati; ri- 
mittendo ogni cosa alia prudenza di S. A. A me pare un escesso 
grande : e per fine baccio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma , come vero 

Di Villa, le 7 di Marzo 1638. 

Di V. S. Ill. ma et Clar. 

Affet. mo e Obgligatiss. mo Servit. re 


Don Carlo seeks a refuge in Church. 

Dalla citata filza 1411 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

111. 1110 et Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Don Carlo si trova per ancora alia chiesa di Castello con suo 
servitore bandito: hanno dua arcabusi e otto pistolli, dicono con 
le spade di campania sono armati come il Capitano spagniolo 
della Comedia. II capitano del Bargello di Firenze e stato dil- 
ligente, e mandate della familia di pigliarlo, ma non potevano, 
per essere dentro il simiterio della chiesa ; offrirono un altro 
prova, e non volsi io, essendo sicuro che lui tirarebbe a loro, 
et e ragionevole in tal caso, che loro tiravano a lui. Dubito che 
qualche amico suo in Corte li da di risposte di speranza, come 
fusse da Sua Altezza, e questo sarebbe suo ruina, e li fara in- 
solente come e, conosco ben suo umore : bisogno a quello cer- 


vello risponderli asperamente, come fece V. S. Ill. ma con gran 
prudenza, con diiii che la potentia di Sua Altezza li troverebbe, 
se andassi a Constantinopili, e accompagnarlo con qualche com- 
mandamento severe, che sotto pena della teste ucisse fuora dello 
Stato infra 30 hore, e che non entra senza licentia di Sua Altezza 
sotto 1' istessa pena, et a chi li riceve in casa, perche lue e stato 
assai in villa d' amici appresso a Pisa e qui. V. S. Ill. ma videra, 
che con speranza e cortesia lui sara il piu insolente corpo si 
puo trovare: ma con asperetza e di ordine severe e rescentiti 
verra d'essere umile, et sera quel S. A. commandera; e questo 
e mio parere, salvo etc. E per fine baccio le niani di V. S. Ill. ma 

Di Villa, le 9 di Marzo 1638. 
Di V. S. 111. 1 " 

Ho scritto a S. A. mio signore dell' insolentia di Don Carlo, 
et prego che questa lettera non sia visto, se non da lei ; di fare 
quel che la sua prudenza pare meglio ; a chi mi rinietto e 

Obg. m et Affet. m Servit. re 


Don Carlo capitulates. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 

(Direzione). AH' e t Sjg.e Mio Osserv. m 
il Sig. e Bali Cioli, primo Secretario di Stato e Cons. 
secreto di S. A. 

In Pisa o a Livorno. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Mando a V. S. Ill. ma per Sua Altezza Serenissima mio signore 
la capitolatione di Don Carlo con suo Principe et con il padre, 


di mano proprio ; pregandolo di rimandarmi doppo 1' originale, 
e servare la copia se li piace. Pare a me troppo gran presun- 
tione d'offrirlo ad un Principe si potente et in suo proprio stato, 
essendo cascato in delitto della testa di entrare lo Stato con 
arme, et con mancamento di parola al Principe tanti volte, et 
di spogliare il padre dell' argenteria in Palazio proprio di S. A. etc. 
Pero per quanto depende da me, non faro altro, se non tratta, 
in una fortezza, remittendosi alia clemenzia di suo Principe, o 
che sia fuora dello Stato ; altramente dira clie io tratta seco 
per paura di suoi arcabusi e tersaroli e brave, ma si videra da 
me ben ingannato e delle suoi debiti non mescolero mai : ne 
ho abastanti de' mei. Mostra anco d' haver poco voglia di videre 
la guerra per la sua scrittura, si bene ha detto publicamente 
che andarebbe, se avesse 200 scudi, ma non li credo, parlava 
fintamente per scusa, et nella scrittura scuopre 1' animo ; e quando 
lui havera sodisfatto a Sua Altezza mio signore per il manca- 
mento ha fatto, poi li daro mio risposto di quel che puo sperare 
da me : ma sempre osservaro quel che ho scritto a V. S. Ill. ma 
di darli 200 W piu dell' argenteria per servire alia guerra il 
Serenissimo Principe Don Matias, et il solito provisione quando 
sar& la ; anzi per servizio del Principe li daro 35 scudi il mese ; 
et e tutto quanto son abile a fare a non lasciare 1'altri morire 
di fame o patire troppo per amor suo. E pero V. S. Ill. ma vede 
(come al piu confidente amico che ho nel mondo) che fo quanto 
posso non capita male. II dubio a pensare e che piglera il de- 
naro e poi non andera, o fingera qualche scusa della sanita, o 
che e stato valigiato per la via, o simil fintione; perche della 
parola non si puo piu fidare. Di questo confido nella prudenza 
di V. S. Ill. ma di pigliare qualche ripiego, con qualche comman- 
damento da Sua Altezza, sotto grave pene, di pigliare il partito, 
o di non entrare piu nello Stato senza espresa licentia di S. A. 
e partirsi ; perche se non e astretto severamente, con il buono 
fara nulla, se non di consumare et impegnare quanto ho con 
ozio in Fiorenza. Pero in questo supplico S. A. humilmente di 
pigliare rimedio con severita, come ha meritato, altramente si 
burlera di tutti, e ne ha di cattivi conselliere e si presume 
troppo di qualche uno potente, altramente non sara possibile 
che havesse 1' ardire che mostra in spregio del suo Principe e 



del Padre, per le suoi capitolationi, e per fine baccio le mani 
di V. S. Ill. ma da cuore. 

Di Villa, le 17 di Marzo 1638. 

Di V. S. Ill. ma et Clariss. ma 

e obglig. m <> Servitore 

Segue nella eitata filza 1'appresso documento. 
(A tergo, di mano del Duca, sta scritto :) 

La capitolatione di Don Carlo con S. A. S. 
per mancamento di parola, e con il pa- 
dre 1' argenterie preso in palazio di S. A. 

II Conte Don Carlo di Varuich per obbedire, come deve a S. A. S. 
et al signer Duca suo padre, si contenta di andar volontaria- 
mente in forteza, con che non possa sotto qualsivoglia pretesto 
esser ritenuto in essa piu di quatro mesi, et che possa andar 
liberamente per tutta la forteza come li piacera, et che deva 
tener i sua servitori, et che detti possino andar fuori et tornare, 
et che passato che saranno i quatro mesi possa esser libero di 
se, et di poter andar et star per tutto il Stato di S. A. S. senza 
poterlo astringere di andar ne alia guerra, ne fuori senza il suo 
consenso et gusto. Et che anco doppo i detti quatro mesi il si- 
gnor Duca suo padre li deva paghare i sua debiti, et li dia una 
giusta provisione; et tutto accio si levi ogni occasione di mai 
piu poterli dar minimo disgusto ; perche non si agiustando i 
mei debiti, quali sono stati cagione di ogni romore, non si po- 
trebbe chiamar ben agiustato il negozio. 



Don Carlo in the Fortezza. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 
Lettera del Duca al Cioli. 

Ill. mo et Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osser. mo 

Mi duole il cuore della mala creanza d' infastidire V. S. Ill. ma 
con piu lettere circa il Conte Don Carlo, ma il negotio e tanto 
intricate e scabroso, che si vole la prudenza sua di digerrirlo, 
a tal fine che ne il Conte, n& altro intercessore per lui puo la- 
mentarsi piu di crudelta. Ho pensato pero questa notte di 3 capi 
per risposta : 

II primo e se lui pretende la giustitia in favor suo, bisogno 
che si rimetti al solito in carcere, di defenders! e recevere la 
sentenza dei Giudice e patirlo, ma questo non li consiglio, sa- 
rebbe mal per lui. 

II 2. do se lui si humiglia alia clemenza del Principe come 
delinquente, conviene che senza capitolazione si rimette in una 
fortezza, dove et in tal modo S. A. mio signore li commandera ; 
poi suplichero io humilmente alia benignita di S. A. S. che sia 
mandate quanto primo alia guerra per servire il Serenissimo 
Principe Don Matias : li perdonoro la valsuta dell' argenteria 
ch' a presa, e li daro 200 W di piu per condurlo al campo (se 
bona fide vol andare) e la havera da me ben pagato la pro- 
visione di 35 W il mese (e passa la paga di Capitano) suplichera 
S. A. ancora, per grazia sua di raccommandarlo al S. re Principe 
che sia trattato apresso di se, come fa ad altri signori di qua- 
lita, o vero che degnera d'accettarlo per camerero suo, come e 
stato qui appresso il Serenissimo Principe Giovan Carlo, che 
quando sara abile di ricevere qualche carica honorata alia guerra, 
degner& d' impiegarlo. 

II 3. zo se Don Carlo non accetta ne giustitia ne clemenza, ne 
di tirarsi inanzi alia guerra, non puo lamentarsi piu se non di 


se stesso etc., e merita per castigo d' essere confinato a Porto 
Feraio a beneplacito di S. A. e sotto pena del fondo di torre 
se non vadi subito, o esce senza licentia di S. A., e havera da 
me per il suo vivere quel che S. A. mi commandera. II Grover- 
natore e suo amico, la cere e buorio, e il luogo e commodo : e 
sara bene di farlo quanto primo, perche non manchino di quelli 
da Fiorenze li danno consiglio del demonio, e lui precipetera 
dell' altri suoi fratelli con 1' istesso, e non si puo rimediarlo ; 
vanno secretamente quando e si vicino non ostante il comman- 
damento di Sua Altezza per la lettera di V. S. Ill. ma e mio, in 
contrario. Se il Conte non ubedisce S. A. di quanto ho accen- 
nato qui, per suo bene merita ogni rigore, a non meno di quello 
che ho supplicate a Sua Altezza per la mia supplica in mano 
del signor auditore Staccoli. Pero se li piacera la puo conferire 
con lui (come Dottore del Consulto) di quanto ho pensato qui 
di mettere in consideratione apresso di S. A. S. et se non ube- 
disse questi, n' e necessario il rigore supplicate. E per fine bac- 
cio le mani affetionatamente di V. S. Ill. ma 

Di Villa, le 19 di Marzo 1637 ab Incarnatione (cioe 1638). 

Di V. S. Ill. ma e Clariss. ma 

Affet. m e Servitore 


Ambrogio is told to write to Carlo. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 
Leitera del Duca a suo figlio Ambrogio. 

Don Ambrogio ditte a vostro fratello con mandarlo questa 
per risposta del succorso di denare lei chede per lui, che tengo 
per una fintione sua al solito e per pretesto ; perche scontando 
per tre mese adesso della sua provisione resta debitore a me 


ancora per 107 scudi delle 200 lui confessa d' haver riceuto per 
1'argenteria mia doppo le 24 di Gennaio passata,benche Y 3 piu etc.; 
perche, se questo non fusse, essendo lui a' Capuccini in contu- 
macia con S. A. S. per la testa, sicome il Ill. mo sig. e Balli Ciolli 
1' ha ben avertito per ordine espresso di Sua Altezza, e anco 
sta la con 1' arme in mano d' arcabusi, cascarei io nella medes- 
sima contumacia e meritatamente di succorrerlo, se non per 
salvare la vita di fama, senza espreso ordine di S. A. mio si- 
gnore, e tanto piu che puo rimettersi se vole alia dementia 
di Sua Altezza in una fortezza, come 1' istesso signer Balli F ha 
accennato etc., et la non manchera le cose necessarie, ne d'in- 
tercessione per suo bene. 

A' di 28 di Marzo 1638. 



Don Carlo's letter to his brother. 

La risposta di Don Carlo a suo fratello si manda con questa copia, 
e pare risposta poco a proposito a questa lettera. 

(Segue la delta risposta.} 

(Direzione). All'Ecc. m Sig. e D. Ambrogio Dudleo 

Sua rnano. 

(Di mano del Duca). Copia della lettera di Don Carlo 
a suo fratello. 

Ill. mo et Ecc. mo Sig. e Fratello Amatiss. mo 

Ho inteso 1' intenzione del signer Padre, et li devo dire che 
la azione non e buona, perche doverebbe cavarsi il boccone di 
bocca per soccorso del figlio, et 1' ordine che dice havere da S. A. 
prima son burlati da me et non veduti ; il che da del tiranno 


al suo Principe, il che non e, et s'inganna se mi ha per igno- 
rante, et se pensa assediarmi et forzarmi d' andare in fortezza 
s'inganna assaissimo, et incorrerebbe nella scomunica se m'im- 
pedissi il vitto, si ancho chi lo consiglia ; perb yuardi quello che 
fa. Pero la sua prudenza dovera conoscere per un grande affetto 
del figlio in contentarsi 1' entrare in una fortezza per ricattare 
1' honore del signer Padre, che per non 1' haver conosciuto a 
tempo stimo certo che sara impossible che piti acconsenta ; il 
sig. r Padre 1' amero, honorero sempre per padre, ma mi dora 
di lui in eterno !, perche e et sara la mia rovina et disreputa- 
zione, et li dica che il trattare all' Inglese in Italia e impru- 
denza, et la rovina di sua figli, se bene non lo crede, et tanto 
basti. Pero amiamoci noi, accio Iddio faccia riconoscere i grandi 
errori ai piu prudenti huomini del mondo, e le baccio le mani. 

Di V. E. 

Li 29 di Marzo 1638. 

Obb. fratello et Se. re che 1' amo 



Don Carlo in the Convent. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 

(Direzione). All' 111. e Clariss. m Sig. e mio Osserv. m 
il Sig. e Bali Cioli, primo Secretario di.Stato, e 
Concelliere secreto di Sua Altezza Serenissima 

In Pisa. 

Ill. mo et Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Piacera S. V. Ill. ma di dire da parte mia humilmente a Sua 
Altezza mio signore come hoggie venne dua Padre Capuccini 


per avisarmi in carita d' alcuni cose non li piacevano punto circa 
Don Carlo, e che mi guardasse bene. Ne fo reflessione dell'av- 
vertimento di Padre si santi in dua parole, imaginando che erano 
mandati dal soperiore per buono fine de prevenire qualche male 
come credo, e che haveva lui bisognio d' tina gran mortificatione 
per li cattivi consigli datoli, perche cosi dicevano loro. Mi ri- 
metto primo a Dio, e poi alia prudenza di S. A., e dubito che 
non e piu tempo di sperare ben di lui per adesso, e pero si vole 
qualche risolutione in fatto per la potentia di S. A. II Padre 
Guardiano non li lascia uscire del convento per qualche rispetto 
non mi volevano dire coteste Padre chiaramente. Dicevano di 
piu che havevano parlato con Monsignore Nuncio, e non darebbe 
lui licenzia che fusse forzato d' uscire del convento, senza F in- 
stanza particolare di Sua Altezza, che all' ora lo farebbe. Delle 
bone avertimente non ha mancato da V. S. Ill. ma , et una volta 
fu persuaso da dette Padre di rendersi in fortezza, ma subito 
fu divertito d' un cattivo spirito, che in voce diro a V. S. Ill. ma , 
e merita castigo. Pero non ci e piu speranza che vol ubedire 
1' or dine di V. S. Ill. ma da parte di S. A. S. e per fine baccio le 
mani di V. S. Ill. ma come partialissimo servitore. 

Di Villa, le 11 di Aprile 1638. 
Di V. S. 111. 

Se io ho raggione di fare reflessione dell' avvertimento ca- 
ritativo pochi paroli di detti buoni Padri V. S. Ill. ma puo videre 
per la copia incluso. S. A. havuto gia 1'originale. In carita spero 
bene, ma in prudenza non voglio fidare piu, perche tocca a me 
e a nissuno altro etc. Perche in parte e seguito circa F argen- 
teria e delle arcabusi e tersaroli portati qui dua volti seco per 
inditio della lettera et dell' avertimento e le tiene al presente ; 
e senza tradimento, in casa lo stimo poco. 

Aff. m e Obgligatiss. m <> Serv. re 



Dalla citata filza 1411. 

(Direzione). All' e Clariss. m Sig. e Mio Osserv. m 
il Sig. e Bali Cioli primo Secretario di Stato e 
Cancelliero secreto di S. A. S. 

In Pisa. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio. 

II signer Dottore Grazia advocate mio amico confident e ha 
presso la fatiga con spesso andare a Don Carlo di persuadeiio 
di entrare in una fortezza per ubedienza a S. A. S. mio signore, 
dove piacera S. A. di commandare, se continue firmo nel propo- 
sito bono di farlo a persuatione del detto signore Dottore. Ne 
ma a V. S. Ill. ma la lettera stessa il sig. e Dottore mi scrive: chi 
piacera a lei per sua grazia di mandare F ordine dove deve an- 
dare ; che non sia mutato, come altri volti da cattivo consiglio ; 
et io non manchero la parola gia dato a V. S. Ill. ma a suo tempo 
per 1' andare in Germania al servire il Serenissimo Principe Ma- 
tliias; e per fine baccio le mani di vero servire a V. S. Ill. ma 

Di Villa, le 15 d' Aprile 1638. 
Di V. S. Ill 

Spero che Don Carlo lo faccia senza capitolazione. 

Aff. mo e Obglig. mo Servitore 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 

(Direzione). AH'Ill. mo e Clariss. m Mio Sig.e Osserv. m 
il Sig. e Bali Cioli primo Secretario di Stato e 
Conseliere secreto di S. A. S. 

In Corte a Livorno o Pisa. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

Mando a V. S. Ill. ma la lettera, che mi scrive il Padre Vica- 
rio di Capucini, dove e Don Carlo in chiesa; ne li ho avertito 


spesse volte per mezzo di amici d' ubedire F ordine di S. A. S. 
mio signore, almeno di non affrontare piii F autorita di Sua Al- 
tezza con uscire fuora di convento: per magiore spregio l'& fatto 
piii d' una volta inanzi che li padre volse fare come scrivino. 
Mi confesso ignorante nel rispondere a quell che il Padre chiede 
per lui. Supplico V. S. Ill. ma d'avisarmi per ordine di S. A. quel 
che devo fare, et per fine baccio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma come vero 

Di Villa, le 23 di Aprile 1638. 

Di V. S. IU. ma 

Affet. mo e obgligatiss. m Serv. re 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 

Lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. e Mio Osserv. mo 

In risposta della lettera di V. S. Ill. ma Don Carlo il giorno 
seguente li scrisse, entro nel convento per violenzia, si come il 
Vicario del convento mi fece sapere, et essendo adesso nelle 
stanzie dove era, e non esce piu fuora, credo che lasceranno 
stare sinche S. A. ritorni. Pertanto li ho mandato la lettera 
di V. S. Ill. ma , ma adesso e tanto in necessita, et ha pregiato 
li buoni consiglie sin adesso, che bisognia entra per forza in 
Fortezza, o perire. Non si puo dire piu che la fa spontaniamente 
o per ubedire, perche tiene di presente, et ha sempre qui tenuto 
un servitore Bergamasco bandito, contra la parola sua data 
a S. A., essendo da me prohibito di continuo. Pero per queque, 
che (sic) depende da me, faccia che vole, non li fidero piu, ne 
mescolero con il fatto suo, come ultimamente ne scrissi a V. S. 
Ill. ma , e ne so troppo del suo cattivo intentione, e per fine bac- 
cio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma , come vero servitore. 

Di Villa, le 27 d' Aprile 1638. 

Di V. S. 111. 1 " e Clariss. ma 

Affet. m <> et 




Don Ambrogio goes to Rome 
with the Cardinal as his page. 

Dalla citata filza 1411 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Lettera diretta al Cioli. 

(Direzione). All' 111. 1 e t Clariss. m Sig. e Mio Os- 
serv. m il Signer Balli Cioli, primo Segretario 
di Stato di S. A. S. etc. 

In sua mano. 

Ill. mo et Clariss. 1110 Sig. e Mio Osserv." 

In risposto della lettera di V. S. Ill. ma circa Don Ambrogio 
mi protesto che non ho saputo mai dell' andare a Eoma del 
Serenissimo signor Cardinale, ne ho cercato mai che Don Am- 
brogio andasse ; anzi haverei supplicato il contrario a S. A., 
come lo supplico per questa volta, massime che Dona Teresia 
mia figlia in Monasterio mostra intensione di farsi monaca ; et 
non so, se tutto quello che ho del mio e abile di faiio con me- 
diocro decoro. Bisognio che qualche uno ha trattato questo ne- 
gotio di sua testa senza il mio sapere. lo non soglio offrire cose 
passano le mei forze. La mia provisione per grazia et bonta 
di S. A. S. mio signore e 157 scudi il mese incirca. Passano 
scudi 50, che pago adesso ogni mese per Don Carlo mio figlio, 
et se io do 40 W il mese per Don Ambrogio et 17 W per uno a 
governarlo, considera V. S. Ill. ma quel che restera, cio 50 W per 
mantenere un Duca di Northumbria con tre figlij maschie et di 
piu una figlia femina a far monaca. Ci e di piu il vestire Don 
Ambrogio di corte et mutare 1' habito si vole centinai di scudi per 
servire un Principe si grande in luogo si iminente. Poi si vole 
la spesa grande d'una persona di governo seco, altramente come 
giovano inesperto, si spendera in un di quell chi 1' appertiene 
per un mese, altramente non essendo abile di supplirlo, nasce- 


rebbe di vergonia, perche non ho ne podere ne entrati del mio, 
ne denare scarsamente di monaccare la detta figlia; et di que- 
sto ne do parola al Serenissimo Cardinale et a V. S. Ill. ma di 
quell che sono. Pero mi rimetto alia bonta del Serenissimo si- 
gnore Cardinale, non mancando in me la bona volunta di fare 
quel che posso per suo servitio. Et con quello ossequio che li 
devo, et per tine baccio le mani di V. S. 111. 1 "* 

Di Villa, le 9 di Giugno 1637. 

Di V. S. Ill. ma et Clarissima. 

Affet. m< > et obgligatiss. m <> Servitore 



Dudley offers Ms services to Prince Giovan Carlo 
de Medici, High Admiral. 

Dalla citata filza 1411. 
Lettera del medesimo al medesimo. 

Ill. mo e Clariss. mo Sig. r Mio Osserv. mo 

Qui si dice volgarmente che il signor Principe Giovan Carlo 
mio signore e fatto Generalissimo dell mare per il Re Catolico. 
Ne ho sentito con grandissima consolatione, essendo carigo me- 
ritevole per Sua Altezza, e mi duole dell' animo, che non posso 
caminare senza groce per ancora, di poter venire a farli rive- 
renza e darli il bon pro di si gran honore, pregando a V. S. 
Ill. ma in questo caso di necessita di farlo per, e offrire all detto 
Serenissimo Principe, mio umilissimo ossequio, e che se F espe- 
rienza che havuto io di mold anni nelle cose dell mare, meri- 
tano di servire S. A., che mi commanda, et anco in persona, 
ben che sono vecchio, saro sempre pronto per suo servizio e 
d' ubedire le suoi commandamenti, come umilissimo servitore, 
e per fine baccio le mani di V. S. Ill. ma 

Di Villa, le 5 di Settembre 1638. 

Di V. S. 111. 

Affet. m e obglig. m Ser. re 




Henry Dudley's letter 
respecting his Lawsuit with Carlo his brother. 

Dalla filza 5535 dell'Archivio Mediceo (nuova numerazione) a pag. 518. 
Carteggio del Cardinale Leopoldo del Medici. 

Serenissimo Signore. 

Se bene io habbia altre volte presso la clemenza e bonta di 
Vostra Altezza interposti li miei ossequientissimi offitij per im- 
petrarli gratie, non posso ragionevolmente astenermi di ricorrere 
alia solita benignita e generosita di V. A. S. supplicandola con 
ogni zelo maggiore a degnarsi di ordinare che fu relassato 1' or- 
dine che V. A. si compiacque sospendere quattro anni sono per 
1' essecutione di un mio credito liquido, contro li effetti del Duca 
mio fratello in giuditio, incaminato nel magistrate della mer- 
cantia, havendo gia a tale effetto pagato tutte le tasse delle 
spese. Resta solo che V. A. si compiaccia di revocar 1' ordine 
che fu fatta la giustitia ; poiche 1' impedimento e sospensione 
di questa esecutione rende a me danno notabilissimo. Percio la 
supplico a concedermi questa gratia, che con questo atto di 
giustitia verra sempre piu obligata la mia somma devotione. 
E rassegnando a V. A. la mia osservanza, profondamente Pin- 

Di V. A. Ser.' aa 

Geneva, 7 Maggio 1662. 

Hum. m Dev. m <> Serje Oblg.n<> 




Don Carlo Dudley asks the Grand-Duke 
to be sponsor to his daughter Carlotta Luisa. 

Dalla filza 1006 (nuova numerazione). Archivio Mediceo. 

Ser. mo Mio Signore. 

Lo sgravamento della Duchessa mia in una figlia acresce 
a V. A. S. una humilissima serva, et da occasione a me di ri- 
cevere li honor! et le grazie, che si e V. A. degnata di farmi 
sperare col tenerla al sacro fonte insieme con Madama Reale, 
alia quale, col prossimo ordinario ne daro avviso per concertare 
il tempo che alle Altezze Loro piu parra. lo che son nato sotto 
la protezione di V. A. devo in ogni occasione confermarle 1' humi- 
lissima mia pronteza in servirla et obbedirla; percio la supplico 
di gradire questo mio dovuto ossequio et humilmente a V. A. 
bacio le vesti. 

Fiorenza, li 20 Decembre 1650. 

Di V. A. Sereniss. ma 

Obbedientiss. m <> et Fedeliss. m Servitore 



Preface Page 1 













I. The Earl of Leicester's Will Page 159 

II. Dudley marries Lady Frances Vavasour 166 

III. Correspondence between King James VI of Scotland and 

Queen Elizabeth : Super Destructione Armatse (vocatce In- 
vincibilis) Hispanicse 167 

IV. Dudley imprisoned with the Earl of Essex 1602 170 

V. Sig. Lotti respecting Dudley's lawsuit 171 

VI. The Patent creating Alice Lady Dudley a Duchess of Eng- 
land 173 

VII. The Queen Consort is angry with Dudley 177 

VIII. - King James' wrath 178 

IX. Letter from Antonio Standen, English spy, concerning Dudley's 

antecedents 179 

X. Dudley's letter offering himself for the Grand-Duke's service. 181 
XI. Letter of Grand-Duke Cosimo II to the Earl of Northampton 

praising Dudley 186 

XII. Sig. Lotti's letter about the ship-builder Matthew Baker going 

to Tuscany 187 

XIII. King James 1st recalls Dudley promising to make him Earl 

of Warwick 188 

XIV. Autograph letter, in which Dudley negociates a marriage for 

Prince Henry, with a Princess of Tuscany 189 

XV. Dudley's house and possessions in 1614 A. D 190 

XVI. Autograph letter from Dudley to Sig. Cioli about his ship the 

St. Cosimo 191 

XVII. Letter from Dudley about his cause in Eome 193 

XVIII. Dudley head of the Arsenal at Leghorn 195 

XIX. Viscount Lisle is made Earl of Leicester 196 

XX. Patent of the Emp. Ferdinand creating Dudley Earl of North- 
umberland, 1620 197 

XXI. Letter from Amerigo Salvetti about Dudley appointing him 

his agent in London 201 



XXII. Dudley asks leave to make reprisals on the English ships, 

and promises Cioli a present Page 202 

XXIII. Endorsement of the Sentence of the Curia Apostolica 203 

XXIY. Salvetti's letter to Sig. Dimurgo Lambardi about the Sen- 
tence of the Curia Apostolica 204 

XXV. The Duchess of Northumberland asks Sig. Salvetti to nego- 

ciate the Dudley cause 205 

XXVI. Death of the Duchess of Northumberland 206 

XXVII. The Grand-Duke is interested in Dudley's obtaining restitu- 
tion 207 

XXVIII. Sig. Salvetti sends Dudley 8000 scudi, restitution from the 

Crown of England 208 

XXIX. The young Earl of Pembroke dies in Dudley's house 

XXX. Dudley asks a Commenda for his son Don Antonio 209 

XXXI. Don Antonio elected Knight of St. Stephen 210 

XXXII. Dudley announces to Sig. Cioli his son Antonio's death... 211 
XXXIII. Dudley's letters to Sig. Cioli about Don Carlo robbing his 

house 212 

XXXIV. Don Carlo a rebel 214 

XXXV. Don Carlo seeks a refuge in Church 215 

XXXVI. Don Carlo capitulates 216 

XXXVII. Don Carlo in the Fortezza 219 

XXXVIII. Ambrogio is told to write to Carlo 220 

XXXIX. Don Carlo's letter to his brother 221 

XL. Don Carlo in the Convent 222 

XLI. Don Ambrogio goes to Rome with the Cardinal as his page. . 226 
XLII. Dudley offers his services to Prince Giovan Carlo de' Medici, 

High Admiral 227 

XLIII. Henry Dudley's letter respecting his lawsuit with Carlo his 

brother 228 

XLIV. Don Carlo Dudley asks the Grand-Duke to be sponsor to 

his daughter Carlotta Luisa 229 


Sir Robert Dudley, when young, created by the Emperor Duke of 

Northumberland in 1620. Frontispiece. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester Page 26 

Dudley's nautical instrument to find the ebb and flow of the tides 40 

Douglas, Lady Sheffield 42 

Dudley House and Loggia Corsi, before the enlargement of Via Tor- 

nabuoni A. D. 1864 : 80 

The Grand Master of Dudley's Cesarean order 103 

The badge of the Cesarean order 104 

Title page of a book dedicated to Robert Dudley 115 

Don Cosimo Dudley 131 

Facsimile of an autograph statement by Dudley 135 

The heraldic quarterings of Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. . 136 
The armorial bearings of Elizabeth Southwell 146 


Leader, John Temple 

Life of Sir Robert Dudley